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Sphyrna zygaena  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Smooth hammerhead
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
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Sphyrna zygaena   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sphyrna zygaena (Smooth hammerhead)
Sphyrna zygaena
Picture by Murch, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Greek, sphyra = hammer (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 13562); depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 5578), usually 0 - 20 m (Ref. 55303).   Subtropical; 59°N - 55°S, 180°W - 180°E

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 265 - ? cm
Max length : 500 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388); common length : 335 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 13562); max. published weight: 400.0 kg (Ref. 9987)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 0. A large hammerhead with a notch at the center of head; 1st dorsal fin moderately high, 2nd dorsal and pelvic fins low (Ref. 5578). Olive-grey or dark grey above, white below (Ref. 5578). Fins nearly plain, dusky or blackish tipped (Ref. 13562).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Widespread in temperate and tropical seas (Ref. 13562). Western Atlantic: Canada to the Virgin Islands; Brazil to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: British Isles to Côte d'Ivoire, including the Mediterranean. Indo-Pacific: South Africa to Sri Lanka; southern Siberia to Viet Nam (Ref. 13562); southern Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii (Ref. 13562). Eastern Pacific: northern California, USA to Chile.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs inshore and well offshore (Ref. 5578), over continental and insular shelves (Ref. 244). Coastal, pelagic, and semi-oceanic, but often bottom associated at 1-139 m (Ref. 58302). Migrates northward in summer; young often in large aggregations of hundreds of individuals (Ref. 13562). Prefers to feed on small sharks, skates and stingrays, but also preys on bony fishes, shrimps, crabs, barnacles and cephalopods (Ref. 244). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Regarded as being dangerous to people, though only few can be tentatively attributed to this species due to its occurrence in temperate waters (Ref. 244). Reported to cause poisoning (Ref. 4690). Caught occasionally by shark and tuna longline fisheries (Ref.58048). Meat utilized fresh, dried-salted, and possibly smoked for human consumption; liver oil for vitamins, fins for soup, hide for leather, and carcasses for fishmeal (Ref. 244). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Become sexually mature when 250 to 300 cm long. The female gives birth to 30 - 40 young (Ref. 35388).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

  Vulnerable (VU) (A2bd+3bd+4bd)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 244)




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00263 (0.00117 - 0.00590), b=3.17 (2.97 - 3.37), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec=20-50).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.