Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Percidae
(Perches) > Luciopercinae
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; brackish; pelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 2 - 30 m (Ref. 30578), usually 2 - 3 m (Ref. 27368). Temperate; 6°C - 22°C (Ref. 2059); 67°N - 36°N, 1°W - 75°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 36.7, range 28 - 46 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); max. published weight: 20.0 kg (Ref. 40476); max. reported age: 17 years (Ref. 59043)
(total): 13 - 20;
soft rays: 10 - 14;
Vertebrae: 45 - 47. Distinguished from congeners in Europe by the following combination of characters: 1-2 enlarged canine teeth in anterior part of each jaw; second dorsal fin with 18-22½ branched rays; and 80-97 scales on lateral line (Ref. 59043).
Europe: Caspian, Baltic, Black and Aral Sea basins; Elbe (North Sea basin) and Maritza (Aegean basin) drainages. North to about 65° N in Finland. Introduced widely (Ref. 59043). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739).
Adults inhabit large, turbid rivers and eutrophic lakes, brackish coastal lakes and estuaries. Feed mainly on gregarious, pelagic fishes. They attain first sexual maturity at 3-10 years of age, usually at 4. Undertake short spawning migrations. Individuals foraging in brackish water move to freshwater habitats. Migrations up to 250 km have been recorded. Homing is well developed, even nearby populations may be relatively isolated. Spawn in pairs at dawn or night. Spawning occurs in April-May, exceptional from late February until July, depending on latitude and altitude when temperatures reach 10-14° C on spawning grounds (Ref. 59043). Popularly fished by sport fishers. Its flesh is succulent (Ref. 30578). Utilized fresh or frozen and eaten steamed, broiled and microwaved (Ref. 9988). An individual weighing 19 kg was reportedly caught in 1959 in Starnberger, Bavaria, Germany (Peter Admicka, pers. Comm. E-mail: email@example.com). The Lake Hjälmaren Pikeperch Fish-Trap fishery of this species has been certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (http://www.msc.org/) as well-managed and sustainable (http://www.msc.org/html/content_1280.htm).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Potential pest (Ref. 57271)
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00543 - 0.00882), b=3.08 (3.01 - 3.15), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.10-0.13; tm=3-5; tmax=16; Fec > 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (62 of 100) .