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Mugil cephalus  Linnaeus, 1758

Flathead grey mullet
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Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Mugiliformes (Mullets) 鱸形目 (Mullets) > Mugilidae (Mullets) 鯔科 (Mullets)
Etymology: Mugil: Latin, mugil, -ilis = grey mullet (Ref. 45335);  cephalus: cephalus meaning head (Ref. 10294).   More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 降海洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 120 m (Ref. 9321), usually 0 - 10 m.   亞熱帶的; 8°C - 24°C (Ref. 4944); 62°N - 57°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 54241)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Cosmopolitan in coastal waters of the tropical, subtropical and temperate zones of all seas. Eastern Pacific: California, USA to Chile (Ref. 2850). Western Pacific: Japan to Australia (Ref. 9812). Western Indian Ocean: from India to South Africa (Ref. 4393). Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to Brazil (Ref. 7251); Cape Cod to southern Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 26938); absent in the Bahamas and most of West Indies and Caribbean (Ref. 7251, 9761). Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to South Africa, including the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea (Ref. 7399). Reported in Sea of Okhotsk (Ref. 50550).
全球分佈於所有海洋的熱帶與亞熱帶區域的沿岸水域。 東太平洋: 美國加州到智利.(參考文獻 2850) 西大西洋: 加拿大的新斯科舍省到巴西;(參考文獻 7251) 科德角到墨西哥灣南部;(參考文獻 26938) 不存在於巴哈馬與大部分的西印度群島與加勒比海。 (參考文獻 7251,9761) 東大西洋: 比斯開灣到南非, 包括地中海與黑海.(參考文獻 7399) 在鄂霍次克海報告。 (參考文獻 50550)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 35.4, range 30 - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 2804); common length : 50.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 7399); 最大年齡: 16 年 (Ref. 28725)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 5; 背的軟條 (總數): 7-9; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8 - 9. Diagnosis: body stout, cylindrical in cross-section, slightly compressed; head broad and flattened (Ref. 57400). Well developed adipose eyelid (Ref. 40476, 57400) covering most of pupil (Ref. 57400). Upper lip thin and without papillae (Ref. 57400), with 1-2 outer rows of small, moderately close-set, unicuspid teeth and up to 6 inner rows of smaller, bicuspid teeth (Ref. 81659). Lower lip with outer row of small unicuspid teeth and sometimes 1 or more inner rows of smaller, bicuspid teeth (Ref. 81659). Hind end of upper jaw reaching a vertical line from anterior eye margin; maxillary pad not visible below corner of mouth when closed; origin of 1st dorsal fin nearer to snout tip than to caudal-fin base (Ref. 57400). Anterior parts and bases of 2nd dorsal and anal fins with a moderately dense coverage of scales (Ref. 57400, 81659). Pectoral axillary process (Ref. 57400). 13-15 scale rows between origins of dorsal and pelvic fins (Ref. 57400, 81659). Pelvic fins, anal fin, and lower lobe of caudal fin yellowish in specimens from the tropical Atlantic coast of Africa (Ref. 57400, 81659).
色彩橄欖綠色的背面, 側邊銀色的顏色變化成腹側白色的。 唇細的。 胸鰭短.(不達到第一背鰭)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults are found in coastal waters (Ref. 2850, 44894, 57400), often entering estuaries and rivers (Ref. 2847, 3573, 11230, 44894, 57400), sometimes far-up-river, lagoons and hypersaline environments (Ref. 57400). They are usually in schools over sand or mud bottom (Ref. 2850), between 0 and 10 m, occurring equally in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters (Project MUGIL). They are mainly diurnal, feeding on detritus, micro-algae and benthic organisms (Ref. 56548, 74902, 74760). Juveniles feed on zooplankton until about 3.0 cm SL (Ref. 59043). Reproduction takes place at sea, at various times of the year depending on the location (Ref. 74907, Amour). Adults form schools and migrate offshore to spawn and developing larvae migrate back inshore (Ref. 81659). There is absence of an obligatory freshwater phase in the life cycle (Ref. 74752). Females spawn 0.8 to 2.6 million eggs which develop at sea (Ref. 74912, Chen & Su 1986). Sexually mature at 3 to 4 years (Ref. 74902). Maximum length reported as 120 cm SL (Ref. 7399, 57400, 81659) remains to be confirmed (Project MUGIL). Maximum weight reported as 12 kg (Ref. 56527) seems too high for the area and remains to be confirmed (Project MUGIL). Widely cultivated in freshwater and brackish ponds (Ref. 2847, Jackson 1984, Liao 1981). Marketed fresh, dried, salted, and frozen; roe sold fresh or smoked (Ref. 9321); also used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).

時常進入河口與河的沿岸魚種 (參考文獻 2850,44894,10294).(參考文獻 2847,3573,11230,44894,10294) 通常成群聚集沙或泥之上底部 (參考文獻 2850) 與茂密的植物.(參考文獻 30578) 主要日行性, 吃浮游動物,底棲的生物與碎屑。 成魚傾向主要吃藻類當棲息於淡水的時候.(參考文獻 28724,10294) 繁殖發生於海洋, 從七月到十月.(參考文獻 30578) 雌性產卵被具有一個顯著的蛋黃的五至七百萬個卵。 在 7 到 8 年時性成熟。 (參考文獻 35237) 卵生的, 卵是大洋性與非黏性物.(參考文獻 205) 廣泛地在東南亞在淡水池塘中培養.。 (參考文獻 2847) 在市場上銷售新鮮的﹐乾燥的﹐和鹽醃的, 與冷凍; 魚白賣新鮮或燻製;(參考文獻 9321) 也被用於中藥材。 (參考文獻 12166) 在世界上的許多地方中的非常重要的經濟魚種.(參考文獻 26938)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

One spawning aggregation was observed in detail. This consisted of five fish, a female and four males. Males would press against the female, which took place as the entire group moved along slowly, facing into a fairly strong tidal flow.全球分佈於所有海洋的熱帶與亞熱帶區域的沿岸水域。 東太平洋: 美國加州到智利.(參考文獻 2850) 西大西洋: 加拿大的新斯科舍省到巴西;(參考文獻 7251) 科德角到墨西哥灣南部;(參考文獻 26938) 不存在於巴哈馬與大部分的西印度群島與加勒比海。 (參考文獻 7251,9761) 東大西洋: 比斯開灣到南非, 包括地中海與黑海.(參考文獻 7399) 在鄂霍次克海報告。 (參考文獻 50550)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Harrison, Ian | 合作者

Harrison, I.J., 1995. Mugilidae. Lisas. p. 1293-1298. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9321)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的 (Ref. 4887)




人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 誘餌: occasionally
FAO(養殖: 產生, 魚種描繪; 漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.3 - 27.9, mean 23.2 (based on 3258 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.01029 - 0.01405), b=2.97 (2.93 - 3.01), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  2.5   ±0.17 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.09-0.15; tm=2-6; tmax=16; Fec=1.6 million).
Prior r = 0.51, 2 SD range = 0.25 - 1.05, log(r) = -0.67, SD log(r) = 0.36, Based on: 1 M, 21 K, 19 tgen, 2 tmax, 10 Fec records
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.