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Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Eurasian minnow
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Phoxinus phoxinus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Cypriniformes (Carps) 鯉形目 (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) 鯉科 (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Phoxinus: Greek, phoxinos = certain river fish (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - 20; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243).   溫帶; 2°C - 20°C (Ref. 1672); 73°N - 37°N, 10°W - 179°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Eurasia: basins of Atlantic, North and Baltic Seas, Arctic and northern Pacific Ocean, from Garonne (France) eastward to Anadyr and Amur drainages and Korea; Ireland (possibly introduced), Great Britain northward to 58°N. Scandinavia and Russia northernmost extremity, Rhône drainage. Recorded from upper and middle Volga and Ural drainages, Lake Balkhash (Kazakhstan) and upper Syr-Darya drainage (Aral basin), but else identifications need verification. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction. Several species are confused under Phoxinus phoxinus.
歐亞大陸: 不列顛群島與西班牙東部到西伯利亞東部。 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 5.1, range 5 - 5.8 cm
Max length : 14.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); common length : 7.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大年齡: 11 年 (Ref. 59043)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 3; 背的軟條 (總數): 6-8; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 6 - 8; 脊椎骨: 38 - 40. Diagnosed from its congeners in Europe by having lateral line usually reaching beyond anal fin base, a midlateral row of vertically elongated blotches whose depth is about 1/3-1/2 of body depth at same position, often fused in a midlateral stripe (in preserved individuals), caudal peduncle depth 2.6-3.1 times in its length, patches of breast scales separated by unscaled area or (rarely) connected anteriorly by 1-2 rows of scales, snout length 29-34% HL ( 1.1-1.4 times eye diameter), and anal fin origin in front of base of last dorsal ray (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196).
尾鰭有 19個鰭條。 (參考文獻 2196)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Gregarious (Ref. 2196). Found in a wide range of cold and well oxygenated habitats from small, fast-flowing streams to large Nordic lowland rivers and from small upland lakes to large oligotrophic lakes. Usually occurs in association with salmonid fishes (Ref. 59043). Feeds on algae, plant debris (in rivers), mollusks, crustaceans and insects (Ref. 30578). Spawns over clean gravel areas in flowing water or on wave-washed shores of lakes. Overwinters in coarse substrate or in deep pools with low current (Ref. 59043). Migrates upstream for spawning in shallow gravel areas. Important laboratory fish, for research on sensory organs of fishes. Mean maximum age is 6 years (Ref. 41616). Locally threatened due to pollution and excessive stocking of species of Salmo (Ref. 59043).

群居的.(參考文獻 2196) 生活在寒冷的﹐流動或靜止的﹐和也溶氧度高的, 在礫石底部上的水域 (參考文獻 9696)。 吃藻類,植物殘枝 (在河中) ,軟體動物,甲殼動物與昆蟲。 (參考文獻 30578) 為產卵在中溯河迴游水淺的礫石區域。 重要的實驗用魚, 對於在魚的知覺器官上的研究。 意謂最大的年齡是 6 年.(參考文獻 41616)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Males and females form school separately and arrive on the spawning site at differen times. Spawn over clean gravel areas in flowing water or on wave-washed shores of lakes. Deposit eggs in shallow water on sand or gravel bottom which hatch in 4-5 days at 18°C. Females lay sticky eggs deep into clean gravel (Ref. 59043).歐亞大陸: 不列顛群島與西班牙東部到西伯利亞東部。 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  潛能有害之物 (Ref. 13686)





人類使用

漁業: 低經濟; 水族館: 商業性; 誘餌: usually
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00692 - 0.00912), b=3.12 (3.08 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=1-6; tmax=13; fec=200).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.