Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Ophidiiformes
(Cusk eels) > Ophidiidae
(Cusk-eels) > Brotulinae
Etymology: Brotula: Latin, brotula, -ae = little, bud, shoot (Ref. 45335). More on author: Hildebrand.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated. Tropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 34024); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Southeast Pacific: Galapagos Islands and Peru.
Inhabit caves and crevices of rocky reefs (Ref. 11482). Oviparous, with oval pelagic eggs floating in a gelatinous mass (Ref. 205). Grow to at least 10 cm (Ref. 11482); size of Brotula species is given as 'at least 75 cm' in Ref. 34024, which is followed here until better information becomes available (RF).
Nielsen, J.G., D.M. Cohen, D.F. Markle and C.R. Robins, 1999. Ophidiiform fishes of the world (Order Ophidiiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of pearlfishes, cusk-eels, brotulas and other ophidiiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(18):178p. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), based on all LWR estimates for this BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=3-4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .