分類 / Names
共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 海; 新鮮な水; 汽水性の; 降流性の (Ref. 59043); 深さの範囲 10 - 20 m (Ref. 30578). Temperate; 60°N - 15°N, 32°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: from the coasts of southern Norway to Cape Verde, including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (Ref. 2804, Ref. 51442, 116118). Records of its occurrence in tropical waters are based on misidentifications (Ref. 3573).
Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢
Maturity: Lm 25.9, range 25 - 32 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 4645); common length : 35.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 3646); 最大公表体重: 2.9 kg (Ref. 40476); 最大記録サイズ: 10 年 (Ref. 40476)
背面の脊椎 (合計): 4 - 5; 背鰭 (合計): 7-10; 肛門の骨 3; 臀鰭: 8 - 9. Fusiform body (Ref. 51442). Massive head, flattened above the eyes (Ref. 51442). Small mouth (Ref. 51442). Snout short and blunt (Ref. 51442). Two dorsal fins well-separated, the first with 4 to 5 spines (Ref. 40476, Ref. 51442). Pectoral fins are placed high on the flanks (Ref. 51442). Large scales (Ref. 51442). Dorsal sides and flanks gray-colored, ventral side white (Ref. 51442).
Adults are pelagic occurring near shore, entering lagoons and lower reaches of rivers in schools; often in polluted waters (Ref. 51442, 59043) between temperatures 8-24°C. Juveniles colonize the littoral zone and estuaries (Ref. 51442). Adults feed on epiphytic algae, detritus and small benthic or planktonic organisms, pelagic eggs and larvae while juveniles feed on zooplankton until about 3.0 cm SL, then on benthic animals and plants (Ref. 59043). Spawning takes place at sea near the coast between September and February (Ref. 30578, 51442). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Adults undergo migrations (Ref. 51442).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | 卵 | 生産力 | 幼生
Spawning takes place at sea near the coast by gathering in groups between September and February (Ref. 51442). The eggs develop at sea (Ref. 51442). The juveniles then colonize the littoral zone and the estuaries (Ref. 51442). Adults enter the lower parts of the rivers and treturn to the sea to spawn (Ref. 51442).
Thomson, J.M., 1990. Mugilidae. p. 855-859. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7399)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
水産業: 商業; 水産養殖: 商業; ゲームフィッシュ: はい
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.7 - 20.1, mean 11.8 (based on 314 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00694 - 0.01199), b=2.97 (2.93 - 3.01), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278
): 2.3 ±0.20 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 69278
): 低い, ４．５年～１４年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.15; tm=3-5).
Prior r = 0.5, 2 SD range = 0.25 - 0.99, log(r) = -0.69, SD log(r) = 0.34, Based on: 2 M, 7 K, 13 tgen, 1 tmax, 8 Fec records
弱み (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100) .