Electrophorus electricus, Electric eel : fisheries, aquarium

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Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Electric eel
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Electrophorus electricus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Gymnotiformes (Knifefishes) 電鰻目 (Knifefishes) > Gymnotidae (Naked-back knifefishes) 裸背電鰻科 (Naked-back knifefishes)
Etymology: Electrophorus: Greek, elektron = amber + Greek,pherein = to carry (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水 底中水層性.   熱帶; 23°C - 28°C (Ref. 1672)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

South America: restricted to the Guiana Shield.
南美洲: 亞馬遜河流域。 奧里諾科河, 而且相關了在南美洲北部的區域。

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 250 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 27188); 最大體重: 20.0 kg (Ref. 27188)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 0. This species is distinguished by the following characters: ventral outline of head U-shaped, widest at terminus of branchial opening and lateral-line pores 88-101 (vs. ovoid, widest anterior to branchial opening, 112-146 in E. voltai); differs from E. varii with skull depressed, cleithrum lies between vertebrae 5 and 6 (vs. (vs. skull deep with cleithrum lying between vertebrae 1 and 2), pectoral-fin rays 32-38 (vs. 20-28) and lateral-line pores 88-101 (vs. 124-186). Low-voltage (Sachs’ organ) electric organ discharges or EODs and high-voltage (main/Hunter’s organ) with head-positive monophasic waveform. Low voltage EOD 2.03-2.19 ms duration; high-voltage EOD 480 V at 760mm TL (Ref. 120918).
延長的身體與圓筒形的, 幾乎沒有鱗片; 頭部平的; 嘴巴大的,有一列錐形牙齒在每個頜; 有三個腹部的對發電器; 身體顏色深色且有前面的腹面部份淡黃色.(參考文獻 12225)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Prefer muddy bottoms and calm waters; frequently found in coastal plains, swamps and creeks but is also found inland where a favorable biotope exist. Juveniles feed on invertebrates, adults feed on fish and small mammals (Ref. 12225), first-born larvae prey on other eggs and embryos coming from late spawning batches (Ref. 40645). The electric organ of this species consists of flattened electrocytes, numbering to about hundreds of thousands, connected in series (Ref. 10840; 10011). Generates two type of electric organ discharges (EODs) from different electric organs which are of myogenic derivation: 1) low-voltage EODs (about 10 V) emitted by the Sach's organ at rates of up to 25 Hz, and 2) high-voltage EODs (about 50-fold) emitted by the main and Hunter's organs at peak rates of up to several hundred Hz. Low-voltage EOD has been associated with electro location whereas high-voltage EOD has been noted during predatory attacks (Ref. 10011). An EOD of 500 V was recorded from a 1 m specimen (Ref. 10530), making it a potentially dangerous species. Incorporation of this species in fish-based house security systems has been suggested (see Ref. 9506). Also possesses high-frequency sensitive tuberous receptors patchily distributed over the body that seems useful for hunting other gymnotiforms (Ref. 10583). A nocturnal species; captive specimens showed higher low-voltage EOD activity during the night compared to daytime (Ref. 10011). This cycle seems to be free-running (internally controlled) (Ref. 10829). Probably a fractional spawner; fecundity count was17,000 eggs (Ref. 10630). An obligatory air breather (Ref. 10011) and can withstand poorly oxygenated water (Ref. 26457). Used in experimental studies.

偏愛泥底部與平靜水域; 時常發現於海岸的平原,沼澤與小溪了但是也在內陸被發現一個有利的生存環境存在的地方。 稚魚吃無脊椎動物, 成魚吃魚與小的哺乳動物 (參考文獻 12225), 初生的仔魚捕食屬於較晚的產卵批次的其他的卵與胚胎。 (參考文獻 40645) 這種的發電器由平的發電細胞組成, 數到大約在系列被連接的數以百計數千 (參考文獻 10840; 10011)。 產生來自不同的發電器的發電器放電 (EODs) 的二個類型肌性引出那是: 1) 低電壓 EODs(大約 10 V) 以向上到的比率發出藉由石赫氏器官 25個赫茲了, 與 2) 高-電壓 EODs(大約 50-摺層) 發出藉由主要的與以向上到幾百個赫茲的高峰率的獵人的器官。 然而高-電壓 EOD 已經在掠食性的攻擊的時候被注意,低電壓 EOD 已經被伴隨著發電的地點。 (參考文獻 10011) 500 的 EOD V 從一件 1 公尺標本 (參考文獻 10530) 被記錄,使它成為一個可能危險的種。 以魚為基礎的房子安全制度的這種的結合已經被建議。 (見參考文獻 9506) 也持有佈滿零碎的對獵食似乎有用其他的電鰻目的身體的高周波的敏感感覺結節。 (參考文獻 10583) 一個夜行的種; 捕獲的標本顯示較高的低電壓 EOD 活動夜晚時相較於白天。 (參考文獻 10011) 這一個周期似乎是自由運作的 (在內部受約束的) 。 (參考文獻 10829) 可能一個少產的魚種; 孕卵數是 17,000個卵。 (參考文獻 10630) 一個必須的呼吸空氣的魚類 (參考文獻 10011) 而且能抵抗含氧量很少的水域.(參考文獻 26457) 被用於實驗的研究了。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Males construct foam nests and guard the growing larvae until mid-January when the first seasonal rains flood the breeding area, causing the about 10 cm long young eels to disperse (Ref. 40645). Males outnumber females (3:1) and are considerably larger than females (Ref. 40645). There are three successive batches of eggs deposited in a spawning period. Not all eels with fully developed gonads (in Goiapi drainnage) participated in the annual spawning activity suggesting that mating success depends in part on finding suitable breeding sites (Ref. 40645).南美洲: 亞馬遜河流域。 奧里諾科河, 而且相關了在南美洲北部的區域。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Campos-da-Paz, Ricardo | 合作者

de Santana, C.D., W.G.R. Crampton, C.B. Dillman, R.G. Frederico, M.H. Sabaj, R. Covain, J. Ready, J. Zuanon, R.R. de Oliveira, R.N. Mendes-Júnior, D.A. Bastos, T.F. Teixeira, J. Mol, W. Ohara, N.C. de Castro, L.A. Peixoto, C. Nagamachi, 2019. Sousa, L.; Montag, L.F.A.; Ribeiro, F.; Waddell, J.C.; Piorsky, N.M.; Vari, R.P.; Wosiacki, W.B. Unexpected species diversity in electric eels with a description of the strongest living bioelectricity generator. Nature Communications (2019)10:4000. (Ref. 120918)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 March 2007

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

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漁業: 商業性; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00203 - 0.00898), b=3.04 (2.84 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.52 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=3; tmax=6 (captive); Fec=17,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (61 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.