Barbus barbus, Barbel : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

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Barbus barbus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Barbel
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Barbus barbus
Picture by Lorenzoni, M.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Cypriniformes (Carps) 鯉形目 (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) 鯉科 (Minnows or carps) > Barbinae
Etymology: Barbus: Latin, barbus = barbel (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水 底中水層性; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 10 - ? m.   溫帶; 10°C - 24°C (Ref. 2060); 57°N - 42°N, 5°W - 36°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe: North of the Pyrénées and Alps, from Adour (France) eastward to Neman (Lithuania, Russia) drainages, in rivers draining to Atlantic, North sea and southern Baltic Sea; Danube to Dniepr drainages in northern Black Sea basin; southeastern England north to Yorkshire. Found almost throughout Mediterranean drainages of France. Locally introduced in northern and central Italy, rivers Wear, Tees and Medway and most western drainages of England.
歐洲: 除了義大利半島,希臘半島與伊比利亞半島。 在義大利人與伊伯利亞半島的亞種的存在可藉由作家辨識出來: 在葡萄牙與西班牙中部與北部的 Barbus barbus bocagei; 在義大利的 Barbus barbus plebejus; 在葡萄牙南部與西班牙南部的 Barbus barbus sclateri

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 31730); common length : 30.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大體重: 12.0 kg (Ref. 31730); 最大年齡: 15 年 (Ref. 59043)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 3 - 4; 背的軟條 (總數): 7-9; 臀棘 2-3; 臀鰭軟條: 5 - 6; 脊椎骨: 46 - 47. Diagnosed from its congeners in France, Great Britain, Black, North, Baltic and Adriatic Sea basins and Apennine Peninsula by having the following characters: lower lip thick with a median swollen pad; tip of dorsal pointed; posterior margin of dorsal concave; last simple dorsal ray spinous, serrated along entire posterior edge; flexible segmented part of last simple dorsal ray about 20-24% of its length; fine dark spots (or no spots) in individuals larger than 10 cm SL; 53-63 total scales on lateral line; 12-14 scale rows between dorsal origin and lateral line; pelvic origin about below dorsal origin; scales with free posterior part pointed; scales on back with 1-5 well developed median longitudinal epithelial crests (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19-20 rays (Ref. 2196).
尾鰭有 19-20個鰭條。 (參考文獻 2196) 也參考文獻 40476.

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits from premontane to lowland reaches of clear, warm, medium sized to large rivers with fast current and gravel bottom. Occasionally found in lakes. Frequently overwinters in large group, inactive or active in slow-flowing river habitats. Adults often form shoal, hiding under overhanging trees or bridges during the day. Adults are encountered most active during dusk and dawn while larvae and juveniles are active during both day and night. Larvae and juvenile stay on the bottom in very shallow shoreline habitats and leave the shores for faster-flowing waters as they grow (Ref. 59043). Lives in the deeper, faster-flowing upper reaches of rivers with stony or gravel bottom (barbel zones). Feeds chiefly on benthic invertebrates, such as small crustaceans, insect larvae, mollusks, mayfly and midge larvae (Ref. 6258) and also on small fish and sometimes algae (Ref. 59043). Spawns usually in very shallow, fast-flowing riffles (Ref. 59043). Spawning occurs from May to July after the fish have migrated upriver (Ref. 556). Eggs are poisonous (Refs. 4537, 6258). Locally threatened due to water pollution and river regulation, especially in Baltic drainages, Elbe, South Bug and Dniepr, and heavily impacted by pollution in central Europe but recovering. Population has declined sharply due to construction of large reservoirs and pollution during 20th century and has stabilized at a moderate level since then (Ref. 59043).

生活在河的比較深又快速流動上游且底部為石頭或砂礫的地方 (觸鬚區域). 主要捕食底棲的無脊椎動物,例如小型甲殼動物,昆蟲幼生,軟體動物,孚游類與蚊仔魚。 (參考文獻 6258) 產卵從五月到七月在魚完成溯溪迴游之後.(參考文獻 556) 卵是有毒的 (參考文獻。 4537,6258).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

"Individual females spawn with several males. Males assemble at spawning grounds and follow ripe females, often with much splashing, to shallow riffles. Males may exhibit courting or sneaking tactics in spawning site. Courting males follow females to spawning site and, during the spawning act, one male swims head to head with the female. Sneaking males, waiting in the spawning site, then join the couple and try to fertilize eggs. Up to 130 males have been reported to be involved in a single spawning act. Females deposit non-sticky eggs in 2-3 portions into excavations made in the gravel" (Ref. 59043).歐洲: 除了義大利半島,希臘半島與伊比利亞半島。 在義大利人與伊伯利亞半島的亞種的存在可藉由作家辨識出來: 在葡萄牙與西班牙中部與北部的 Barbus barbus bocagei; 在義大利的 Barbus barbus plebejus; 在葡萄牙南部與西班牙南部的 Barbus barbus sclateri

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Bianco, P.G., 1998. Diversity of Barbinae fishes in southern Europe with description of a new genus and a new species (Cyprinidae). Ital. J. Zool. 65:125-136. (Ref. 31730)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 05 March 2010

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

另外地 (Ref. 4537)





人類使用

漁業: 低經濟; 養殖: 將來有可能使用; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 商業性
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource |

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孕卵數

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00366 - 0.01140), b=2.99 (2.84 - 3.14), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.39 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (tm=3-5).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.