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Epinephelus tauvina  (Forsskål, 1775)

Greasy grouper
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Epinephelus tauvina   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus tauvina (Greasy grouper)
Epinephelus tauvina
Picture by Randall, J.E.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 礁区鱼类; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - 300 m (Ref. 28016).   亞熱帶的; 30°N - 32°S, 29°E - 123°W (Ref. 5222)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to South Africa and eastward to Ducie in the Pitcairn Group, north to Japan, south to New South Wales and Lord Howe Island. Migration report from the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Ref. 6489, 5385) may be based on Epinephelus coioides specimens.
印度-太平洋: 紅海到南非與向東至皮特凱恩島群的迪西,北至日本, 南至新南威爾斯與羅得豪島。 遷移報告從地中海東部 (參考文獻 6489,5385) 可能是以 點帶石斑〔Epinephelus coioides〕 標本為依據。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 61.1, range 61 - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 89972); common length : 90.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 5450)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 11; 背的软条 (总数): 13-16; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 8. Color of head and body pale greenish grey or brown with round dark spots that vary from dull orange-red to dark brown, centers darker than the edges. A large black blotch (or group of black spots) often visible on body at the base of last 4 dorsal-fin spines. Five sub vertical dark bars may be present on body. Dark spots on soft dorsal, caudal and anal fins of juveniles are so close that the pale interspaces form a white reticulum. 95-112 scales in longitudinal series. Scales on body ctenoid in juveniles, becoming cycloid in adults except the area beneath and posterior to pectoral fins. Pyloric caeca 16-18. Further characterized by: elongate body, depth contained 3.0-3.6 times in SL; large head, length is 2.1-2.4 times in SL; snout length 2.0-2.4 times in upper-jaw length; interorbital area narrow, flat to slightly concave, interorbital width 6.8-8.1 times in HL and 3.1-4.0 times in upper jaw length; broadly rounded preopercle, serrae at angle of preopercle slightly enlarged; upper edge of operculum almost straight; posterior nostrils distinctly larger than anterior nostrils; maxilla reaching well past eye, greatest width about twice suborbital depth, maxilla width 6.8-8.1% of standard length; upper-jaw length 21-24% of SL; 2-5 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; inner teeth at symphysis of upper jaw are longer than the fixed canines at front of jaw (Ref. 89707). Differs from E. howlandi by its more elongate body and closer-set spots (Ref. 37816).
头部与身体的颜色灰白的呈绿色的灰色或褐色的有改变的深色圆斑从暗橘红色到深褐色的, 中心比边缘颜色更深。 一个大的黑色斑块 (或群体的黑色斑点) 时常看得见的在最后 4根背鳍棘的基底的身体上。 五条接近垂直的深色横带可能是位于身体之上。 在稚鱼的软背鳍、尾鳍与臀鳍上的深色的斑点是如此的接近以致于 , 灰白的间隙形成一个白色的网状质。 在纵向的系列中的 95-112个鳞片。 在身体上的鳞片有栉鳞的在稚鱼中,变成圆形当成鱼时除胸鳍下面与后面的区域。 幽门盲囊 16-18. 用它的更多的细长的身体与较靠近的斑点有别于 E. corallicola E. howlandi 。 (参考文献 37816)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults prefer clear water areas on coral reefs; juveniles have been taken from reef flats and in tide pools, adults found in deeper waters. Solitary and common in lightly fished areas (Ref. 37816). Adults from Oceania almost exclusively feed on fishes (holocentrids, mullid, and pomacentrid); and occasionally, crustaceans (Ref. 89707). Present in the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874. Occasionally ciguatoxic (Ref. 37816). Reports of sizes in excess of 80 cm total length for E. tauvina are probably based on misidentifications of E. coioides, E. malabaricus, and E. lanceolatus; these species grow much bigger than E. tauvina (Ref. 5222, Heemstra pers. comm. 09/04). .

在珊瑚礁上偏爱清澈的水域; 稚鱼曾被采自礁石平台而且在潮池中,成鱼发现于较深的水域了。 独居性与常见于轻轻的捕获区域.(参考文献 37816) 来自大洋洲的成鱼几乎只吃鱼 (holocentrids , mullid 与雀鲷科) 。 在香港活鱼贩卖。 (参考文献 27253) 最小深度报告取自参考文献 30874. 偶然地有西加毒的.(参考文献 37816) 给 E. tauvina 的超过 80 公分全长的大小的报告是可能以 E. coioides 的误鉴为依據 , E. malabaricus, 與 E. lanceolatus; 這些種生長比 tauvina 大許多 (參考文獻 5222, Heemstra pers. comm。 09/04). 。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

印度-太平洋: 紅海到南非與向東至皮特凱恩島群的迪西,北至日本, 南至新南威爾斯與羅得豪島。 遷移報告從地中海東部 (參考文獻 6489,5385) 可能是以 點帶石斑〔Epinephelus coioides〕 標本為依據。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  有雪卡鱼毒中毒的报导 (Ref. 9710)




人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(养殖: 产生; 渔业: 产生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 19.6 - 28.2, mean 26.2 (based on 1115 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00983 - 0.02225), b=3.05 (2.93 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.68 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.1-0.17; tm=5-6; Fec = 354,989).
Prior r = 0.42, 2 SD range = 0.25 - 0.71, log(r) = -0.87, SD log(r) = 0.26, Based on: 4 K, 2 tgen, 2 Fec records
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.