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Trachurus declivis (Jenyns, 1841)

Greenback horse mackerel
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Trachurus declivis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Trachurus declivis
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Carangidae (Jacks and pompanos) 鰺科 (Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Trachurus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Jenyns.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 深度上下限 27 - 460 m (Ref. 27930), usually ? - 300 m (Ref. 9072).   溫帶; ? - 16°C (Ref. 9072); 9°S - 53°S, 112°E - 177°E (Ref. 54926)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Southwest Pacific: Western Australia to New South Wales, including New Zealand. Principal component analysis of morphometric and meristic characters indicates three separate subpopulations in the Great Australian Bight, off New South Wales, and off Tasmania (Ref. 7456).
西南太平洋: 澳洲西部到新南威爾斯, 包括紐西蘭。 型態特徵與體節特徵的主要組成分析在大澳洲灣,外海的新南威爾斯與外海的塔斯梅尼亞中指出三個個別的子族群。 (參考文獻 7456)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 31.5, range 23 - 37 cm
Max length : 64.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 33839); common length : 42.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 9258); 最大年齡: 25 年 (Ref. 9072)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 9; 背的軟條 (總數): 29-35; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 24 - 29; 脊椎骨: 24. Adults are elongate and slightly compressed, and have a primary lateral line with 71-89 scutes, and a secondary lateral line reaching to below dorsal-fin rays 7-9 (Ref. 33616).
成魚是細長而些微扁長形, 而且有一個主側線有 71-89個鱗甲 , 與一條第二的側線延伸到背鰭鰭條 7-9 下面.(參考文獻 33616)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults are commonly found near the bottom, in midwater and occasionally at the surface (Ref. 9258) in continental shelf waters (Ref. 27930). They form pelagic schools for most of the year but may move close to the sea bed during winter (Ref. 27931). Generally found at less than 300 m water depth with temperature less than 16° C (Ref. 9072). Juveniles inhabit coastal and estuarine waters although they may sometimes be found offshore (Ref. 27930). Adults feed mostly during the day mainly on krill and other planktonic crustaceans, light fish (Sternoptychidae) and lantern fish (Myctophidae) at the edge of the continental shelf (Ref. 27933).

普遍地在底部附近發現, 在中層水域中與偶然地在水表面 (參考文獻 9258) 在大陸棚水域中.(參考文獻 27930) 他們形成大洋性的魚群每年大部分的時間但是可能移動在冬天期間接近海床.(參考文獻 27931) 用溫度少於 16個 ° C 通常發現於少於 300個公尺水深了。 (參考文獻 9072) 雖然他們有時可以被發現於外海,稚魚棲息於海岸而河口的水域。 (參考文獻 27930) 大部分在白天期間的吃在大陸棚的邊緣主要吃磷蝦與其他的浮游性甲殼動物,日光燈魚 (Sternoptychidae) 與燈籠魚 (Myctophidae) 。 (參考文獻 27933)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Eggs and sperm are released amongst schooling fish, possibly deep in the water column near the edge of the continental shelf. Eggs are distributed between the surface and the thermocline and larvae are carried inshore by currents.西南太平洋: 澳洲西部到新南威爾斯, 包括紐西蘭。 型態特徵與體節特徵的主要組成分析在大澳洲灣,外海的新南威爾斯與外海的塔斯梅尼亞中指出三個個別的子族群。 (參考文獻 7456)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Smith-Vaniz, William F. | 合作者

Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 119314)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 19 July 2017

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 誘餌: usually
FAO(漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.1 - 20.2, mean 14.4 (based on 135 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00791 - 0.02004), b=2.97 (2.83 - 3.11), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.61 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=2-4; tmax=25).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.