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Poecilia reticulata  Peters, 1859

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Native range | All suitable habitat
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Poecilia reticulata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Cyprinodontiformes (Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Poeciliidae (Poeciliids) > Poeciliinae
Etymology: Poecilia: Greek, poikilos = with a lot of colours (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Peters.

环境 / 气候 / 范围 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; pH range: 7.0 - 8.0; dH range: 9 - 19; 非迁移的.   熱帶; 18°C - 28°C (Ref. 1672); 14°N - 2°N, 67°W - 52°W

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South America: Venezuela, Barbados, Trinidad, northern Brazil and the Guyanas. Widely introduced and established elsewhere, mainly for mosquito control, but had rare to non-existing effects on mosquitoes, and negative to perhaps neutral effects on native fishes (Ref. 12217). Africa: Feral populations reported from the coastal reaches of Natal rivers from Durban southwards, as well as in the Kuruman Eye and Lake Otjikoto in Namibia (Ref. 7248). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
南美洲: 委內瑞拉,巴貝多,千里達,巴西北部與蓋亞那。 廣泛地在別的地方引入了而且建立了, 主要地對於控制蚊子, 但是在蚊子上對非現有的影響很少了, 而且在原生的魚上負面或可能沒有影響.(參考文獻 12217) 非洲: 野生的族群記錄自來自德爾班南方的納塔爾河的海岸範圍了, 以及在那米比亞的庫魯曼湖與湖 Otjikoto 中.(參考文獻 7248) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 59043); 6.0 cm SL (female); common length : 2.8 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 12193)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 7-8; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 8 - 10

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits warm springs and their effluents, weedy ditches and canals (Ref. 5723). Found in various habitats, ranging from highly turbid water in ponds, canals and ditches at low elevations to pristine mountain streams at high elevations (Ref. 11225). Occurs in wide variety of habitats with low predation pressure, usually in very small streams and densely vegetated lakes and springs (Ref. 59043). Has a wide salinity range but requires fairly warm temperatures (23-24 °C) and quiet vegetated water for survival (Ref. 7248, 44894, 79840). Feeds on zooplankton, small insects and detritus. One of the most popular aquarium fishes with many standardized varieties. Used in genetics research. Female reaches 5 cm SL (Ref. 2847). Males mature at 2 months and females at 3 months of age (Ref. 1672). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 60 cm (Ref. 51539). A very popular and widely available species in the aquarium trade. In Australia, wild populations were established prior to the 1970s, undoubtedly the result of thoughtless aquarists discarding unwanted pets (Ref. 44894). Maximum length for female taken from Ref. 43281.

出现于温暖的泉水与其溢流, 杂草丛生的沟渠与管。 (参考文献 5723) 发现于被范围从到高海拔的原始山地溪流的在在低海拔的池塘,管与沟渠中的高度混浊的水的各种不同的栖息地了。 (参考文献 11225) 栖息于缓慢流动的或在植物之中的水池的边缘附近的静止的水域.(参考文献 44894) 有一个宽的盐度范围但是需要非常温暖的温度 (23-24 °C) 与安静的对于生存的长满植物的水.(参考文献 7248,44894) 吃浮游动物,小的昆虫与碎屑。 最受欢迎观赏鱼之一具有许多标准的变异。 被用于遗傳學研究了。 母魚達到 5 公分 SL 。 (參考文獻 2847) 雄性在 2個月與雌性在 3個月的年齡時成熟。 (參考文獻 1672) 水族館保持: 形成 5個或更多個體的群體; 水族館最小體型 60 公分.(參考文獻 51539) 在水族貿易中的一個非常受歡迎與廣泛有用的種。 族群在 1970 年代之前被建立, 毫無疑問地丟棄不必要的寵物的沒有考慮水族館的結果.(參考文獻 44894)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Males are about half the size of females with colorful tail and caudal fin; the anal fin is transformed into a gonopodium for internal fertilization. Males are continuously chasing and mating females. Females can store sperms for later fertilization and may produce young every four weeks. Pregnant females are recognizable by black triangle between anal and pelvic fins. After a gestation period of four to six weeks females give birth to 20-40 live young. No parental care is exercised and parents may even prey on their young.南美洲: 委內瑞拉,巴貝多,千里達,巴西北部與蓋亞那。 廣泛地在別的地方引入了而且建立了, 主要地對於控制蚊子, 但是在蚊子上對非現有的影響很少了, 而且在原生的魚上負面或可能沒有影響.(參考文獻 12217) 非洲: 野生的族群記錄自來自德爾班南方的納塔爾河的海岸範圍了, 以及在那米比亞的庫魯曼湖與湖 Otjikoto 中.(參考文獻 7248) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Rodriguez, C.M., 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Poeciliini (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae). Copeia 1997(4):663-679. (Ref. 26855)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 115185)


CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated




渔业: 没有兴趣; 水族馆: 商业性
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00416 - 0.02191), b=3.12 (2.93 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.40 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  高度, 族群倍增时间少于 15个月 (tm=0.16-0.25; Fec=20-40 with multiple spawning per year).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .