Poecilia reticulata  Peters, 1859

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Native range | All suitable habitat
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Poecilia reticulata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Actinopterygii (Straalvinnigen) > Cyprinodontiformes (Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Poeciliidae (Poeciliids) > Poeciliinae
Etymology: Poecilia: Greek, poikilos = with a lot of colours (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Peters.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; zoetwater; brakwater benthopelagisch; pH range: 7.0 - 8.0; dH range: 9 - 19; standvastig.   Tropical; 18°C - 28°C (Ref. 1672); 14°N - 2°N, 67°W - 52°W

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South America: Venezuela, Barbados, Trinidad, northern Brazil and the Guyanas. Widely introduced and established elsewhere, mainly for mosquito control, but had rare to non-existing effects on mosquitoes, and negative to perhaps neutral effects on native fishes (Ref. 12217). Africa: Feral populations reported from the coastal reaches of Natal rivers from Durban southwards, as well as in the Kuruman Eye and Lake Otjikoto in Namibia (Ref. 7248). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.0 cm SL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 59043); 6.0 cm SL (female); common length : 2.8 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 12193)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 0; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 7-8; Anale stekels 0; Anale zachte stralen: 8 - 10

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Inhabits warm springs and their effluents, weedy ditches and canals (Ref. 5723). Found in various habitats, ranging from highly turbid water in ponds, canals and ditches at low elevations to pristine mountain streams at high elevations (Ref. 11225). Occurs in wide variety of habitats with low predation pressure, usually in very small streams and densely vegetated lakes and springs (Ref. 59043). Has a wide salinity range but requires fairly warm temperatures (23-24 °C) and quiet vegetated water for survival (Ref. 7248, 44894, 79840). Feeds on zooplankton, small insects and detritus. One of the most popular aquarium fishes with many standardized varieties. Used in genetics research. Female reaches 5 cm SL (Ref. 2847). Males mature at 2 months and females at 3 months of age (Ref. 1672). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 60 cm (Ref. 51539). A very popular and widely available species in the aquarium trade. In Australia, wild populations were established prior to the 1970s, undoubtedly the result of thoughtless aquarists discarding unwanted pets (Ref. 44894). Maximum length for female taken from Ref. 43281.

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Males are about half the size of females with colorful tail and caudal fin; the anal fin is transformed into a gonopodium for internal fertilization. Males are continuously chasing and mating females. Females can store sperms for later fertilization and may produce young every four weeks. Pregnant females are recognizable by black triangle between anal and pelvic fins. After a gestation period of four to six weeks females give birth to 20-40 live young. No parental care is exercised and parents may even prey on their young.

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator | Medewerkers

Rodriguez, C.M., 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Poeciliini (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae). Copeia 1997(4):663-679. (Ref. 26855)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Potential pest




Gebruik door de mens

Visserij: van geen belang; Aquarium: Commercieel
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00420 - 0.02171), b=3.12 (2.93 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.40 se; Based on food items.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 69278):  Hoog, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd minder dan 15 maanden (tm=0.16-0.25; Fec=20-40 with multiple spawning per year).
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .