Salvelinus malma, Dolly varden : fisheries, gamefish

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Salvelinus malma (Walbaum, 1792)

Dolly varden
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Salvelinus malma   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Salvelinus: Old name for char; it is the same root of german "saibling" = little salmon (Ref. 45335);  malma: malma which is the the common name for this species in Kamchatka (Ref. 1998).  More on author: Walbaum.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 200 m (Ref. 50550).   温带; 4°C - 18°C (Ref. 13614); 75°N - 38°N, 127°E - 123°W

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North America: Arctic and Pacific drainages from lower Mackenzie River in Northwest Territories, Canada to Puget Sound and Quinault River in Washington, USA (Ref. 86798). Northwest Pacific: Korea to Bering Sea (Ref. 2850).
北极圈与东北太平洋: 流域从阿拉斯加到 Puget 声音, 美国在华盛顿州; 从前在美国加州的 McCloud 河流域。 西北太平洋: 韩国到白令海.(参考文献 2850)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 23.5, range 12 - 21 cm
Max length : 127 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 27436); common length : 37.5 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 12193); 最大体重: 18.3 kg (Ref. 27436)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 10-16; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 10 - 15. Body elongate, somewhat rounded, greatest body depth below dorsal fin. Head rather long. Pelvic fins with free-tipped fleshy appendage above its insertion. Caudal emarginate (Ref. 27547). Color varies with size, locality and habitat. Sea-run adults with back, upper head, and upper sides dark blue, the sides silvery to white. In freshwater populations, the back and upper sides are olive green to brown, the sides a paler color but bright red in spawning fish and at all times in some areas of Alaska, the underside white to dusky. The dorsal surface are marked with yellow, orange or red spots, more numerous and those along the lateral line smaller, than in arctic char. Spawning males, especially of anadromous populations, turn red on the ventral surface and tip of snout. The lower jaw, operculum and parts of the head are black, the back and sides turn olive-brown. The spots become more vivid orange-red, the pectoral and anal fins red-black with a white leading edge, the snout thickens and the lower jaw turns up. Females change less.
细长的身体,略微圆的, 在背鳍之下的最大体高。 头部相当长的。 腹鳍有顶端分离的在它的嵌入上面的肉质附肢。 尾部的边缘微凹的.(参考文献 27547) 颜色随着大小,地点与栖息地改变。 海洋回游的成鱼有背面,上面的头部与上侧面深蓝色,侧边银色到白色。 族群, 背部与上侧面是橄榄绿色的在淡水中到褐色的, 侧边一个较灰白的颜色但是鲜红色在产卵鱼方面而在全部倍在一些地区阿拉斯加州, 腹面白色者到暗色的。 背部表面被有显着的黄色,橘色或者红色的斑点, 众多的与那些沿着侧线小的, 超过在北极的零碎工作中。 生育期的雄鱼, 尤其溯河洄游产卵族群, 在腹面与吻尖上变成红色。 下面的颌, 鳃盖与头部的部份是黑色, 背部,而且侧边变黄褐色的。 斑点变得更生动的橘红色, 胸鳍与臀鳍红色-黑色的有一个白色的前缘, 吻部粗而下面的颌旋转在。上面 雌性改变比较少量。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs in deep runs and pools of creeks and small to large rivers; also in lakes and the sea (Ref. 5723, 86798). Lives in very clean mountain streams (Ref. 12218). Nerito-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Typically anadromous, but many populations are landlocked. Anadromous fish may spend 2-3 years at sea, evidently near shore, migrate upstream usually in fall, and spawn during spring (Ref. 86798). Young remain in streams for 3-4 years and feed on insects, leeches, snails, and salmon eggs (Ref. 1998) before entering brackish and salt water to feed on insects, fishes, and other invertebrates. Utilized fresh and eaten fried, broiled, and baked (Ref. 9988).

出现于小溪与河的深小支流与水潭; 也在湖与海洋中.(参考文献 5723) 生活在非常乾净的山地溪流。 (参考文献 12218) 典型溯河洄游产卵, 但是许多族群是陆封的.(参考文献 5723) 溯河洄游产卵鱼可能度过在海上的 2-3 年, 明显地近岸, 而且移动溯河到产卵.(参考文献 5723) 幼鱼逗留在溪流达 3-4 年而且在进入半咸淡水之前吃昆虫,水蛭,蜗牛与鲑鱼卵 (参考文献 1998) 与咸水觅食昆虫,鱼与其他的无脊椎动物。 生鲜使用与油炸后食用, 烤的与烘乾的.(参考文献 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Adults from the sea and lakes enter rivers to spawn. A female selects a nest site and begins to dig a redd while the male continues to court her and drive away intruding males. Upon completion of the redd, both drop into it and release eggs and sperm. This may be repeated several times before the eggs are covered by the female who swims along the edge of the of the redd, sweeping small pebbles and other particles into it with her tail and anal fin. Later, she may dig again and further cover the eggs while preparing a new nest (Ref. 27547). Breeding is an annual event for southern populations; occurring every second or third year in the Arctic (Ref. 27547). Males and females reportedly die after spawning (Ref. 12218).北极圈与东北太平洋: 流域从阿拉斯加到 Puget 声音, 美国在华盛顿州; 从前在美国加州的 McCloud 河流域。 西北太平洋: 韩国到白令海.(参考文献 2850)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)


CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated




渔业: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.2 - 8, mean 2.2 (based on 653 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00351 - 0.00823), b=3.03 (2.90 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (tm=3-5).
Prior r = 0.24, 95% CL = 0.15 - 0.39, Based on 1 stock assessment.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.