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Salvelinus alpinus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Arctic char
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Image of Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic char)
Salvelinus alpinus
Female picture by Ueberschär, B.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) 鮭形目 (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) 鮭科 (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Salvelinus: Old name for char; it is the same root of german "saibling" = little salmon (Ref. 45335).

Issue
The species Salvelinus aureolus Bean, 1887 is considered as valid in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. May 2011: Ref. 86870) following Fuller et al. (1999: Ref. 87253). Treated as synonym of Salvelinus alpinus oquassa by Qadi (1974: Ref. 87252); and probably a synonym of Salvelinus alpinus

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 70 m (Ref. 30578), usually 0 - 1 m (Ref. 101587).   溫帶; 4°C - 16°C (Ref. 2059); 85°N - 42°N, 180°W - 180°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe and North America: Circumpolar (Ref. 86798). Iceland, Scandinavia, northern Russia (absent in rivers draining to Baltic and White Seas), Jan Mayen, Spitzberg, Kolguev, Bear and New Zemblia islands, northern Siberia, Alaska, Canada and Greenland; absent in the Alps (Ref. 59043). North America: coastal areas in Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific drainages from Newfoundland and Labrador in Canada to Alaska; south along Alantic Slope to Maine, USA (Ref. 86798). Landlocked populations in Quebec, Canada and in Maine and New Hampshire in USA (Ref. 7251).
歐洲: 北部大西洋向南至挪威南部, 也冰島與格陵蘭南部。 在英國北部,斯堪的那維亞半島,芬蘭與阿爾卑斯山脈中的孤立族群。 在美國的加拿大魁北克與緬因州與新罕布夏州的陸封族群.(參考文獻 7251)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 60.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 107 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 40637); common length : 40.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 4779); 最大體重: 15.0 kg (Ref. 4779); 最大年齡: 40 年 (Ref. 46974)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 4 - 5; 背的軟條 (總數): 8-16; 臀棘 3-4; 臀鰭軟條: 7 - 15; 脊椎骨: 62 - 68. Distinguished by the presence of 23 to 32 gill rakers, 37 to 75 pyloric caeca and, on the sides and back, pink to red spots, the largest of which are usually larger than the pupil of the eye (Ref. 27547). Lateral line curves slightly downward from the head (Ref. 27547). Pelvic fins with axillary process; caudal emarginate (Ref. 27547). Color highly variable, depending on location, time of year and degree of sexual development. In general, back is dark, usually rather brown but sometimes with a green cast; the sides are lighter, belly pale; sides and back are liberally sprinkled with pink to red spots, the largest spots along the lateral line usually larger than the pupil of the eye; forward edges of pectoral, pelvic and anal fins, and sometimes the caudal, with a narrow white margin; fins pale in young, dorsal and caudal dark in adults (Ref. 27547). Spawning adults, especially males, are brilliant orange-red to bright red on the ventral side and on the pectoral, pelvic and anal fins. Young have about 11 dark parr marks on each side (Ref. 27547). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196).
區別的特徵為那有 23 到 32個鰓耙,37 到 75個幽門的盲腸與, 側邊上與背面,粉紅色到紅色斑點, 最大的通常那是大於眼的瞳孔.(參考文獻 27547) 側線彎曲些微向下從頭部.(參考文獻 27547) 腹鰭有腋窩的羽翼突起; 尾部的邊緣微凹的.(參考文獻 27547) 被依據地點,年的時候與性發展的程度而定的彩色高變異的。 大體上, 背面顏色較深, 通常相當褐色但是有時有綠色的外貌; 側邊是顏色淡的, 腹面灰白的; 側面與背面寬大地與粉紅色到紅色斑點一起灑,最大的斑點通常沿著側線大於眼的瞳孔; 向前胸鰭的邊緣, 腹鰭與臀鰭,而且有時尾鰭,具有一個狹窄的白色邊緣; 鰭灰白的當幼魚時, 背鰭與尾鰭黑的當成魚時.(參考文獻 27547) 產卵的成魚, 雄性, 是色彩豔麗的尤其橘紅色的到鮮紅色在腹的側邊與胸鰭,腹鰭與臀鰭上。 幼魚在兩邊上有大約 11個黑的幼鮭橫帶。 (參考文獻 27547) 尾鰭有 19個鰭條。 (參考文獻 2196)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Anadromous forms spend a considerable time of their lives at sea; non-migratory populations remain in lakes and rivers (Ref. 4779). Occurs mainly in lakes. Found in rivers, estuaries and lakes with cold, clear water. At the sea, lives along coasts (Ref. 59043). Inhabits deep runs and pools of medium to large rivers, and lakes (Ref. 5723, 86798). Anadromous populations enter rivers to breed during fall and winter (Ref. 86798). Nerito-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Freshwater populations feed on planktonic crustaceans, amphipods, mollusks, insects and fishes (Ref. 4479). Anadromous individuals feed little in freshwater and never feed during migrations. Spawning usually takes place on pebble to stone bottom in lakes. Riverine stocks spawn in rivers with slow current (02.-0.8 m/s), but there are some riverine anadromous stocks (in Norway) which spawn yearly in fast-flowing waters of riffles (Ref. 59043). Extremely sensitive to water pollution (cold water and oxygen oriented) (Ref. 2163). Marketed fresh, smoked, canned (Ref. 27547), and frozen. Eaten sautéed, broiled, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Parasitized by tapeworm (Ref. 37032).

出現於中型到大型河川的深小支流與水潭 , 與湖。 (參考文獻 5723) 溯河洄游產卵的型式在海上度過一個他們的生命的相當多時間; 非迴游性族群逗留在湖與河。 (參考文獻 4779) 沿海-大洋性.(參考文獻 58426) 淡水族群吃浮游性甲殼動物,片腳類動物,軟體動物,昆蟲與魚。 (參考文獻 4479) 非常地對水污染 (寒冷水與氧導向的) 敏感。 (參考文獻 2163) 在市場上銷售生鮮、煙燻, 將,裝於罐頭 (參考文獻 27547) 與冷凍。 被吃炒,火烤, 油炸, 微波而且燒烤。 (參考文獻 9988) 被條蟲寄生.。 (參考文獻 37032)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Males are generally territorial but when females start showing spawning behavior, males pair up with females and lose interest in their territories. Spawning takes place at almost any time of the day. A female invades a males territory and finds a suitable spot for a redd. Once a spot has been selected, she starts digging. While the female is digging, the male courts her by circling around her and then gliding along her side and quivering. When the redd is completed, the pair release egg and sperm. The pair then swim forward out of the nest, often still ejecting sex products. This may be repeated up to 5 times before the female begins to cover the eggs. The female then digs at the edge of the pit, covering the eggs and beginning the next redd (Ref. 27547). Males often mate with more than one female, taking the second mate after the first has exhausted the eggs. Sometimes, a female will mate successively with two or more males (Ref. 28968, 28969). Several days are usually required for females to deposit all their eggs (Ref. 27547).歐洲: 北部大西洋向南至挪威南部, 也冰島與格陵蘭南部。 在英國北部,斯堪的那維亞半島,芬蘭與阿爾卑斯山脈中的孤立族群。 在美國的加拿大魁北克與緬因州與新罕布夏州的陸封族群.(參考文獻 7251)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的




人類使用

漁業: 低經濟; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.1 - 9.7, mean 1.9 (based on 316 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00422 - 0.01564), b=3.00 (2.84 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (tm=7-10; tmax=24; Fec=400).
Prior r = 0.27, 2 SD range = 0.11 - 0.69, log(r) = -1.31, SD log(r) = 0.46, Based on: 1 M, 1 K, 12 tgen, 2 tmax, 3 Fec records
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.