You can sponsor this page

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha  (Walbaum, 1792)

Chinook salmon
把你的觀察加入 Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
上傳你的 相片 和 影像
Pictures | Google 影像
Image of Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Chinook salmon)
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Male picture by McDowall, R.M.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) 鮭形目 (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) 鮭科 (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Oncorhynchus: Greek, onyx, -ychos = nail + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335);  tshawytscha: tshawytscha which is the vernacular name of this species in Kamchatka (Ref. 1998).

環境 / 氣候 / 範圍 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 375 m (Ref. 58426).   溫帶; ? - 25°C (Ref. 35682), preferred 4°C (Ref. 107945); 72°N - 27°N, 136°E - 109°W (Ref. 54251)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Arctic, Northwest to Northeast Pacific: drainages from Point Hope, Alaska to Ventura River, California, USA; occasionally strays south to San Diego in California, USA. Also in Honshu, Japan (Ref. 6793), Sea of Japan (Ref. 1998), Bering Sea (Ref. 2850) and Sea of Okhotsk (Ref. 1998). Found in Coppermine River in the Arctic. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
北極圈, 東北太平洋的西北: 來自點希望,阿拉斯加到 Ventura 河的流域, 美國加州; 迷途的魚在美國加州南至聖地牙哥偶然地。 也在日本本州 (參考文獻 6793) ,日本海 (參考文獻 1998) ,白令海 (參考文獻 2850) 與鄂霍次克海.(參考文獻 1998) 在北極圈發現於科柏曼河。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 82.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 40637); common length : 70.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 9258); 最大體重: 61.4 kg (Ref. 27547); 最大年齡: 9 年 (Ref. 12193)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 10-14; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 13 - 19; 脊椎骨: 67 - 75. Distinguished by the small black spots on the back and on the upper and lower lobes of the caudal fin, and the black gums of the lower jaw (Ref. 27547). Body fusiform, streamlined, noticeably laterally compressed in large adults, somewhat deeper than other species (Ref. 6885). Gill rakers wide-spaced and rough; pelvic fins with axillary process (Ref. 27547). Fish in the sea are dark greenish to blue black on top of head and back, silvery to white on the lower sides and belly; numerous small, dark spots along back and upper sides and on both lobes of caudal; gum line of lower jaw black (Ref. 27547). In fresh water, with the approach of the breeding condition, the fish change to olive brown, red or purplish, the color change being more marked in males than in females (Ref. 27547).
在背部與尾鰭的上、下葉上區別的特徵為小的黑色斑點了, 與下面頜的黑色樹膠.(參考文獻 27547) 身體紡錘型,簡化, 顯著側扁在大的成魚中, 略深於其他的種.(參考文獻 6885) 鰓耙間隔大的與粗糙; 腹鰭有腋窩的羽翼突起.(參考文獻 27547) 在海洋的魚在頭頂與背面上是黑的呈綠色到藍色的黑色, 在下面的側邊與腹面上的銀色到白色; 很多的小, 深色斑點沿著背面與上側面與在雙葉上尾部的; 下頜黑色的樹膠線.(參考文獻 27547) 在淡水中,藉由繁殖環境的方式,魚變成黃褐色的﹐紅色的或者帶紫色的, 顏色改變作為在雄性中標示的更多超過在雌性中.(參考文獻 27547)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults return to natal streams from the sea to spawn (Ref. 27547). Fry may migrate to the sea after only 3 months in fresh water, some may stay for as long as 3 years, but generally most stay a year in the stream before migrating (Ref. 27547). Some individuals remain close inshore throughout their lives, but some make extensive migrations (Ref. 27547, 44894). Also found in lakes (Ref. 1998). Possibly up to 375 m depth (Ref. 6793). Epipelagic (Ref. 58426). Food in streams is mainly terrestrial insects and small crustaceans; in the sea, major food items include fishes, crustaceans, and other invertebrates (Ref. 27547). Young are preyed upon by fishes and birds (such as mergansers and kingfishers); adults are prey of large mammals and large birds (Ref. 1998). Highly regarded game fish (Ref. 27547). Flesh is usually red, but some are white; the red meat commands a higher price (Ref. 27547). Marketed fresh, smoked, frozen, and canned. Eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved, and baked (Ref. 9988). Viscera said to contain high vitamin A content and used successfully as food for hatchery fish (Ref. 28971, 28977).

成魚回到出生的溪流距離海洋產卵.(參考文獻 27547) 魚苗可能迴游到海洋在只有 3個月之後在淡水中,一些可能停留長達 3 年, 但是在移動之前通常最在水流中停留一年.(參考文獻 27547) 一些個體在他們的生命各處保持近岸,但是一些作廣泛的迴游。 (參考文獻 27547,44894) 也發現於湖。 (參考文獻 1998) 可能地向上到 375 公尺深。 (參考文獻 6793) 表層帶.(參考文獻 58426) 在溪流的食物是主要陸棲的昆蟲與小型甲殼動物; 在海洋中,主要的食物組成包括魚,甲殼動物與其他的無脊椎動物。 (參考文獻 27547) 幼魚被魚與鳥 (例如秋沙鴨與魚狗) 捕食; 成魚是大哺乳動物與大的鳥捕食.(參考文獻 1998) 獲高度評價遊釣魚類。 (參考文獻 27547) 肉通常是紅色,但是一些是白色的; 紅色的肉具有較高的價格。 (參考文獻 27547) 在市場上銷售生鮮、煙燻﹐冷凍的﹐與罐裝的。 清蒸,油炸,火烤, 煮沸, 微波., 而且燒烤..(參考文獻 9988) 內臟說包含高含量的維他命 A 與成功地當作食物對於孵卵所魚是使用過的.(參考文獻 28971,28977) 這種的阿拉斯加州鮭魚漁場已經被檢定藉由海洋的總管職務會議 (http://www.msc.org/) 當管理良好且族群能維持。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Adults migrate up to 4,827 km upstream to spawn (Ref. 6850). Migration from the sea begins in December so that the the first fish are near river mouths by spring (Ref. 27547). Once a female selects a spot, she begins to dig a nest, driving away other females during the period of nest building. The female is attended by a larger, dominant male and several smaller males who drive away other males. While the female digs the nest, the male courts her by coming to rest beside her and quivering; by swimming about over her, touching her dorsal fin with his body and fins; and occasionally nudging her side gently with his snout (Ref. 28978). Upon completion of the nest, the female drops into it and is immediately joined by the dominant male. The fish open their mouths, vibrate, and eggs and sperm are released. At this point smaller males may dart into the nest and release sperm. The female then quickly moves to the upstrem edge of the nest and begins to dig. The eggs are covered and a new nest is made. The whole process is repeated until the female releases all her eggs, which may take several days. The male then leaves the female and may mate with another female. The female guards the nest for as long as she can. Spent adults usually die a few days after spawning. (Ref. 1998, 27547). Reproductive strategy: synchronous ovarian organization, determinate fecundity (Ref. 51846).北極圈, 東北太平洋的西北: 來自點希望,阿拉斯加到 Ventura 河的流域, 美國加州; 迷途的魚在美國加州南至聖地牙哥偶然地。 也在日本本州 (參考文獻 6793) ,日本海 (參考文獻 1998) ,白令海 (參考文獻 2850) 與鄂霍次克海.(參考文獻 1998) 在北極圈發現於科柏曼河。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 109396)

  未評估 

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  潛能有害之物 (Ref. 12257)




人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | 周邊海洋

工具

特別的報告

下載 XML

網路資源

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=4; tmax=9; Fec=4,000).
Prior r = 0.38, 2 SD range = 0.14 - 0.99, log(r) = -0.97, SD log(r) = 0.48, Based on: 5 tgen, 1 tmax, 7 Fec records
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.