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Oncorhynchus keta  (Walbaum, 1792)

Chum salmon
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Oncorhynchus keta   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Oncorhynchus keta (Chum salmon)
Oncorhynchus keta
Picture by Keeley, E.R.

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ikan bertulan sejati > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Oncorhynchus: Greek, onyx, -ychos = nail + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335).

Lingkungan / Klimat / Range Ekologi

; laut; air tawar; payau bentopelagis; anadromus (ruaya dari laut ke air tawar) (Ref. 51243); kisaran kedalaman 0 - 250 m (Ref. 50550).   Temperate; ? - 24°C (Ref. 35682); 67°N - 24°N, 130°E - 110°W (Ref. 54684)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm 70.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm FL jantan/; (Ref. 559); common length : 58.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 3561); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 15.9 kg (Ref. 40637); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 7 Tahun (Ref. 1998)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 10-14; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 13 - 17; vertebrata, bertulang belakang: 59 - 71. Distinguished by the lack of distinct black spots on the back and tail and by the presence of 18 to 28 short, stout, smooth gill rakers on the first arch (Ref. 27547). Pelvic fins with axillary process; caudal truncate to slightly emarginate (Ref. 27547). Large individuals are steel-blue dorsally, with speckles of black; silver on the sides; silvery to white ventrally. Males have tinges of black on the tips of its caudal, anal and pectoral fins. Spawning males are dark olive to black dorsally; grey-red with green vertical bars on the sides; dark grey ventrally; anal and pelvic fins with white tips. Spawning females resemble spawning males but less distinctly marked.

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

North Pacific: Korea , Japan, Okhotsk and Bering Sea (Ref. 1998), Arctic Alaska south to San Diego, California, USA. Asia: Iran (Ref. 39702).

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Inhabits ocean and coastal streams. Migrating fry form schools in estuaries, remain close to shore for a few months and finally disperse to enter the sea (Ref. 1998). Epipelagic (Ref. 58426). Juveniles and adults feed mainly on copepods, tunicates and euphausiids but also on pteropods, squid and small fishes (Ref. 1998). Adults cease feeding in freshwater (Ref. 1998). Males and females die after spawning. The catch is mostly canned but also sold fresh, dried-salted, smoked, and frozen. Eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved, and baked (Ref. 9988). Utilized for caviar. The Alaska Salmon fishery of this species has been certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (http://www.msc.org/) as well-managed and sustainable (http://www.msc.org/html/content_485.htm).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Enters freshwater during advanced stage of sexual development and spawning occurs almost immediately (Ref. 1998). Spawning occurs at depths of ~3 meters, current speeds of ~20cm/sec. near the head waters over sand and pebbles at 4-11° C water temperature. At spawning time the female excavates a hole of around 1 meter diameter and 50 cm depth before spawning can occur (Ref. 12218). Nest building is done by the female by lying on one side and lashing its tail to displace the sand and silt on the river bed. The pair then settles in the nest, mouths gape, and with rapid vibration of the pair, eggs and milt are released. The female then covers the nest. Males are aggressive and may spawn with different females; females likewise may spawn with other males and therefore builds different nests. Adults die after a week (Ref. 1998). A fish spawns 700-7,000 eggs in two to three egg releases. Eggs are ~300-3,500 per spawn. Egg size is ~6.7 mm, water temp. is 8-10°C at 60 days before hatching. Larva size is around 16 mm. Come springtime the juveniles go to the ocean and come back 3-4 years later to their exact birthplace. This fish reaches maturity in 2-4 years. Larvae are found around the spawning site, Juveniles are found around the coast. Juveniles migrate to the ocean at ~27-45 mm during February at water temperatures around 4° C (Ref. 12218). Reproductive strategy: synchronous ovarian organization, determinate fecundity (Ref. 51846).

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator | mitra

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Harmless




penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: bernilai komersial tinggi; Budidaya air: komersial; Ikan buruan: ya; Akuarium: Akuarium publik
FAO(Budidaya air: production; Perikanan: production, profail spesis; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

informasi lanjut

Acuan
Budidaya air
profil budidaya air
Strain
Genetika
Frekuensi alel
Diturunkan
Penyakit-penyakit
Pengolahan
Mass conversion
mitra
Gambar
Stamps, Coins
Suara-suara
Ciguatera
Kecepatan
Tipe renang
Area insang
Otoliths
Otak
Penglihatan / visi

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

muat turun XML

Sumber internet

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.00711 - 0.02680), b=3.10 (2.94 - 3.26), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 69278):  sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (K=0.27-0.45; tm=2-5; tmax=6).
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   Medium.