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Oncorhynchus mykiss  (Walbaum, 1792)

Rainbow trout
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Image of Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow trout)
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Female picture by McDowall, R.M.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Oncorhynchus: Greek, onyx, -ychos = nail + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335);  mykiss: Oncorhynchus=hooked snout; mykiss=a vernacular name for the species in Kamchatka, Russia (Ref. 79012).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 200 m (Ref. 50550).   溫帶; 10°C - 24°C (Ref. 12741); 67°N - 32°N, 135°E - 117°W

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Native to Pacific Slope from Kuskokwim River, Alaska to (at least) Rio Santa Domingo, Baja California, Mexico; upper Mackenzie River drainage (Arctic basin), Alberta and British Columbia in Canada; endorheic basins of southern Oregon, USA. Widely introduced in cold waters elsewhere in North America and rest of the world (Ref. 5723). Eastern Pacific: Kamchatkan Peninsula and have been recorded from the Commander Islands east of Kamchatka and sporadically in the Sea of Okhotsk as far south as the mouth of the Amur River along the mainland. The records outside Kamchatka probably represent migrating or straying Kamchatkan steelhead (penshinensis) rather than the established native population (Reg. 50080). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
東太平洋: 勘察加半島而且曾經記錄從指揮官島勘察加以東而且偶而在鄂霍次克海中向南遠至阿穆爾河河口沿著大陸。 勘察加以外的記錄可能代表移動或迷路勘察加鮭 ( penshinensis) 而不是確定的原生族群 (普通型的。 50080)。 一最,廣泛地被引入的魚種, 可能是視為全球的在它的存在分布中。 在熱帶中侷限於在 1,200 公尺上面的區域。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊.(參考文獻 5723)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 122 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 96339); common length : 60.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 5504); 最大体重: 25.4 kg (Ref. 7251); 最大年龄: 11 年 (Ref. 12193)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 10-12; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 8 - 12; 脊椎骨: 60 - 66. Body elongate, somewhat compressed especially in larger fish. No nuptial tubercles but minor changes to head, mouth and color occur especially in spawning males. Coloration varies with habitat, size, and sexual condition. Stream residents and spawners darker, colors more intense. Lake residents lighter, brighter, and more silvery. Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196). Differs from Oncorhynchus gorbuscha by having the following unique characters: by having the following unique characters: anal fin with 6-9½ (usually 8½ ) branched rays; 115-130 scales in midlateral row; 16-17 gill rakers; breeding males lacking hump; juveniles lacking parr marks; wide pink to red stripe from head to caudal base, except in sea-run form; and juveniles with 5-10 parr marks (Ref. 59043).
细长的身体, 略微扁长形的尤其在较大的鱼中。 没有珠星但是较小的变成头部,嘴与颜色尤其在生育期的雄鱼中出现。 体色随着栖息地,大小与性别状态改变。 溪流鱼种与产卵鱼比较黑的, 颜色更密集。 湖泊鱼种颜色淡的,比较明亮的,与更银色的。 尾鳍有 19个鳍条。 (参考文献 2196)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults inhabit cold headwaters, creeks, small to large rivers, and lakes. Anadromous in coastal streams (Ref. 5723). Stocked in almost all water bodies as lakes, rivers and streams, usually not stocked in water reaching summer temperatures above 25°C or ponds with very low oxygen concentrations. Feed on a variety of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates and small fishes. At the sea, they prey on fish and cephalopods. Mature individuals undertake short spawning migrations. Anadromous and lake forms may migrate long distances to spawning streams (Ref. 59043). Utilized fresh, smoked, canned, and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Cultured in many countries and is often hatched and stocked into rivers and lakes especially to attract recreational fishers (Ref. 9988).

此鱼种的自然栖息地是淡水大约在夏天的 12 °C。 不清楚的是否它的由海洋移栖淡水产卵的习性是一个真实遗传的适应或只是随机的行为。 似乎任何的虹鳟品系能够移动, 或至少适应海水, 如果需要或者机会发生。 他们需要和缓到快速的流动, 溶氧量高的水域繁殖, 但是他们也生活于寒冷的湖.(参考文献 6390,44894) 虹鳟在湖中存活更多超过在溪流中.(参考文献 26519) 从十一月到十月进入勘察加的河,在春天产卵,不远离海洋, 而且回游回到海洋五月- 六月时.(参考文献 593) 通常接近底部觅食。 (參考文獻 13337) 成魚吃水生與陸棲的昆蟲,軟體動物,甲殼動物,魚卵,條魚類與其他的小魚;(包括其他的鱒魚) 幼魚主要以浮游動物為食。 (參考文獻 26523) 被煙燻,, 裝於罐頭與冷凍的生鮮使用; 清蒸,油炸,火烤, 煮沸, 微波了而且燒烤了.(參考文獻 9988) 虹鱒在許多國家被養殖而且時常進入河川與湖泊之內孵化形成族群尤其吸引一般釣客。 (參考文獻 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Reported not to establish breeding populations if the peak emergence of fry corresponds to flood season and cold summer temperatures and if temperature does not fall below 13° C (Ref. 59043). Males mature generally at 2 years and females at 3. Spawning happens from November until May in the Northern hemisphere and from August to November on the Southern hemisphere. The size of the eggs depends on the size of the female. In captivity spawning is fostered by abdominal massage. Egg size 3-6 mm, fry length after hatching 12-20 mm. Hatchlings are well developed and equipped with a large yolk sac. The female finds a spot and digs a pit. While digging, an attendant male courts her or is busy driving away other males. As soon as the pit is completed, the female drops into it and is immediately followed by the male. The pair is side by side, they open their mouth, quiver and release egg and sperm. Females produce from 700 to 4,000 eggs per spawning event (Ref. 4706). At this point, a subordinate male moves in and releases sperm into the nest. The female quickly moves to the upstream edge of the nest and starts digging a new pit, covering the eggs. The whole process is repeated for several days until the female deposits all her eggs (Ref. 27547). Young fish move downstream at night, shortly after emergence (Ref. 4706). Reproductive strategy: synchronous ovarian organization, determinate fecundity (Ref. 51846).東太平洋: 勘察加半島而且曾經記錄從指揮官島勘察加以東而且偶而在鄂霍次克海中向南遠至阿穆爾河河口沿著大陸。 勘察加以外的記錄可能代表移動或迷路勘察加鮭 ( penshinensis) 而不是確定的原生族群 (普通型的。 50080)。 一最,廣泛地被引入的魚種, 可能是視為全球的在它的存在分布中。 在熱帶中侷限於在 1,200 公尺上面的區域。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊.(參考文獻 5723)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Gall, G.A.E. and P.A. Crandell, 1992. The rainbow trout. Aquaculture 100:1-10. (Ref. 4706)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 115185)

  不评价 

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  潜能有害之物




人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(养殖: 产生, 物种外形; 渔业: 产生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 1.3 - 10, mean 5.4 (based on 315 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00733 - 0.01245), b=3.03 (2.98 - 3.08), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.38-0.46; tm=2-5; tmax=11; Fec=200).
Prior r = 0.46, 2 SD range = 0.2 - 1.07, log(r) = -0.78, SD log(r) = 0.42, Based on: 1 K, 9 tgen, 1 tmax, 3 Fec records
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Low.