Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Hippocampinae
Etymology: Hippocampus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek,kampe = curvature (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range ? - 100 m (Ref. 52034), usually ? - 20 m (Ref. 30915). Tropical; 42°N - 42°S, 65°E - 132°W
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
Indo-Pacific: southern India to Japan, Australia and Tahiti. International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies.
Inhabits gravel or sand bottoms around shallow reefs (Ref. 559); muddy estuaries and near mangroves, tolerating brackish waters (Ref. 48635). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205).
Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall, 1999. Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00242 - 0.01892), b=2.93 (2.69 - 3.17), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=0.5-1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .