Xiphias gladius  Linnaeus, 1758

Swordfish
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Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Xiphiidae (Swordfish) 劍魚科 (Swordfish)
Etymology: Xiphias: Greek, xiphos = sword (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Linnaeus.

環境 / 氣候 / 範圍 生態學

; 海洋; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 800 m (Ref. 9354), usually 0 - 550 m (Ref. 54934).   溫帶; 5°C - 27°C (Ref. 43); 61°N - 50°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 54934)

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Atlantic, Indian and Pacific: tropical and temperate and sometimes cold waters, including the Mediterranean Sea, the Sea of Marmara, the Black Sea, and the Sea of Azov. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139). Mt DNA restriction analysis reveal that genetic differentiation occurs between populations inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea and the tropical Atlantic ocean, indicating little genetic exchange occurring between the two (Ref. 12784).
大西洋,印度洋與太平洋: 熱帶與溫帶與有時寒冷的水域, 包括地中海,馬爾馬拉海,黑海, 與亞速海。 高度遷移的種,1982年海事法會議的附件一.(參考文獻 26139) Mt DNA 限制分析揭露遺傳的區別在棲息於地中海的族群與熱帶大西洋的族群之間出現, 指出出現在兩者之間的小的遺傳交換。 (參考文獻 12784)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 221.0, range 156 - 250 cm
Max length : 455 cm FL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 40637); common length : 300 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 9354); 最大體重: 650.0 kg (Ref. 4689)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 38-56; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 16 - 18. Blackish-brown fading to light-brown below; 1st dorsal fin with blackish-brown membrane, other fins brown or blackish-brown (Ref. 43). A long, flat, sword-like bill and no pelvic fins (Ref. 26938).
暗褐色的下面被褪成的淡褐色; 第一背鰭有暗褐色的薄膜,其他的鰭褐色或暗褐色的.(參考文獻 43) 一個長的﹐平坦的﹐和像劍一樣的嘴與沒有腹鰭.(參考文獻 26938)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Oceanic but sometimes found in coastal waters (Ref. 9354). Generally above the thermocline (Ref. 9354), preferring temperatures of 18°C to 22°C (Ref. 9987). Larvae are frequently encountered at temperatures above 24 °C (Ref. 9702). Migrate toward temperate or cold waters in the summer and back to warm waters in the fall. Adults are opportunistic feeders, known to forage for their food from the surface to the bottom over a wide depth range (Ref. 9702). Feed mainly on fishes (Atlantic mackerel, barracudinas, silver hake, redfish, herring and lanternfishes (Ref. 5951)) but also on crustaceans and squids (Ref. 9354). They use their sword to kill their prey (Ref. 9354). Large individuals may accumulate large percentages of mercury in its flesh (Ref. 9354). Are batch spawners (Ref. 51846). Spawning takes place in Atlantic during spring in southern Sargasso Sea. Migrate to cooler waters to feed (Ref. 4689). Females grow fastest. Determination of age is difficult since the otoliths are very small and scales are missing in adults. Year rings have been successfully counted on cross sections of the fin rays (Ref. 35388). Pelagic eggs measure 1.6-1.8mm and the newly hatched larvae is 4 mm long. Sword is well developed at a length of 10mm and young live pelagically in the upper water layers where they quickly develop into very voracious predators (Ref. 35388). Mt DNA restriction analysis reveal that genetic differentiation occurs between populations inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea and the tropical Atlantic ocean, indicating little genetic exchange occurring between the two (Ref. 12784). Good food fish, marketed fresh or frozen, and can be made into sashimi, teriyaki or fillets (Ref. 9354).

大洋性的但是有時發現於沿岸水域.(參考文獻 9354) 通常在溫水層 (參考文獻 9354) 之上, 喜歡 18 °C 的溫度勝過 22 °C.(參考文獻 9987) 仔魚時常在 24 °C 上面的溫度被見到。 (參考文獻 9702) 向溫帶或者寒冷水域迴游夏天時而且游回溫暖的水域秋天時。 成魚是在一個寬的深度範圍之上被知道到從水表到底部搜尋食物的隨機捕食者。 (參考文獻 9702) 主要捕食魚 (大西洋的鯖,梭魚,銀色的鱈魚,雄鮭, 鯡魚與燈籠魚 (參考文獻 5951)) 也捕食甲殼動物與烏賊.(參考文獻 9354) 他們使用他們的劍殺他們的獵物。 (參考文獻 9354) 大的個體可能在它的肉累積高百分比的汞。 (參考文獻 9354) 分批產卵者是.(參考文獻 51846) 產卵發生於大西洋春天時在藻海南部中。 雌性生長得最快速。 由於耳石是非常小而成魚的鱗片消失,年齡的鑑定很困難。 年輪曾經在鰭條的橫切面上成功計算出來.(參考文獻 35388) 大洋性的卵尺寸 1.6-1.8 mm 與最近孵化的仔魚是 4 mm 長。 劍是發展良好的,在體長 10 mm 與幼魚大洋性地住在上層水域在那裡它們很快地發展成非常狼吞虎嚥的掠食者.(參考文獻 35388) Mt DNA 限制分析揭露遺傳的區別在棲息於地中海的族群與熱帶大西洋的族群之間出現, 指出出現在兩者之間的小的遺傳交換。 (參考文獻 12784) 好食用魚, 生鮮或冷凍地在市場上銷售, 而且能被製成生魚片,串烤或魚排.(參考文獻 9354)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

In the Atlantic Ocean, spawning occurs in the upper water layer at depths between 0 and 75 m, at temperatures around 23°C, and salinity of 33.8 to 37.4 ppt. The distribution of larval broadbill swordfish in the Pacific Ocean indicates that spawning occurs mainly in waters with a temperature of 24°C or more. Spawning appears to occur in all seasons in equatorial waters, but is restricted to spring and summer at higher latitudes (Ref. 30448). Fertilisation in broadbill swordfish is external and pairing of solitary males and females is thought to occur when spawning (Ref. 9742). Broadbill swordfish are reported to spawn in the upper layers of the water column, from the surface to a depth of 75 m (Ref. 43). Estimates of egg numbers vary considerably, from 1 million to 16 million in 168,000 g female (Ref. 9742) and 29 million in a 272,000 g female (Ref. 30372).大西洋,印度洋與太平洋: 熱帶與溫帶與有時寒冷的水域, 包括地中海,馬爾馬拉海,黑海, 與亞速海。 高度遷移的種,1982年海事法會議的附件一.(參考文獻 26139) Mt DNA 限制分析揭露遺傳的區別在棲息於地中海的族群與熱帶大西洋的族群之間出現, 指出出現在兩者之間的小的遺傳交換。 (參考文獻 12784)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Nakamura, I., 1985. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 5. Billfishes of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of marlins, sailfishes, spearfishes and swordfishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(5):65p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 43)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

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漁業: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00161 - 0.00900), b=3.15 (2.94 - 3.36), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (rm=0.076; K=0.23; tm=5-6; tmax=9).
Prior r = 0.43, 2 SD range = 0.24 - 0.77, log(r) = -0.84, SD log(r) = 0.3, Based on: 12 K, 2 tgen, 3 tmax, 4 Fec records
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.