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Latimeria chalumnae  Smith, 1939

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Latimeria chalumnae
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Sarcopterygii 肉鳍亚纲 (叶- 有鳍的鱼) (lobe-finned fishes) > Coelacanthiformes (Coelacanths) 腔棘魚目 (Coelacanths) > Latimeriidae (Gombessa) 矛尾魚科(Gombessa) (Gombessa)
Etymology: Latimeria: Taken from Miss Courtenay Latimer worker in the East London Musuem; she contributed to the update of the fish (Coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae) (Ref. 45335);  chalumnae: Chalumnae = the name of river Chalumna in South Africa, where the "first" Coelacanth was found (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Smith.

环境 / 气候 / 范围 生态学

; 海洋 居于水底的; 非迁移的; 深度上下限 150 - 700 m (Ref. 38430), usually 180 - 250 m (Ref. 27564).   深水域; 13°C - 25°C (Ref. 38429), preferred ?; 3°S - 34°S, 25°E - 51°E (Ref. 46167)

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Indian Ocean: well known population off the islands of Grand Comoro and Anjouan in the Comoros. Other populations in South Africa (Ref. 11228, 38218), Madagascar (Ref. 26162), and Mozambique (Ref. 27415). Likely to occur as strays at islands like Astove and Cosmoledo (Ref. 1623). International trade banned (CITES I, since 18.1.1990).
印度-西太平洋: 在科摩洛廣為人知壯觀科羅摩與 Anjouan 的族群外海島嶼。 在南非 (參考文獻 11228,38218) ,馬達加斯加 (參考文獻 26162) 與莫三比克的其他族群.(參考文獻 27415) 或許在像 Astove 與 Cosmoledo 的島出現如迷途的魚.(參考文獻 1623) 國際間的買賣禁止。 ( 引用 I, 自從 18.1.1990 以後)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 150.0, range 145 - 160 cm
Max length : 168 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 30865); 200.0 cm TL (female); 最大体重: 95.0 kg (Ref. 26162); 最大年龄: 48 年 (Ref. 30865)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 8; 背的软条 (总数): 30-31; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 27 - 31. This species have the following characters: D VIII+30-31; A 27-31; P 29-32; V 29-33; C 20-25/35-38/21-22; LL 94-104; gills 4; gill rakers replaced by spiny tooth-plates. Head naked, the opercular bones exposed; gill cover expanded posteriorly and ventrally as a thick flap of skin; lower jaw with two large, overlapping gular plates; teeth conical, set on bony plates attached to palatines, ectopterygoids, and dentaries; maxilla absent (the structure at the side of the upper jaw that appears to be a maxillary bone is a thick fold of skin connecting the upper jaw to the rear of the lower jaw). Swim bladder elongate, filled with fat; intestine with spiral valve; osmoregulation involves retention of urea and trimethylamine oxide in the blood, but urea is not resorbed by the kidneys and excess salts are excreted by the rectal gland. In adults the brain is incredibly small, occupying only about 1% of the cranial cavity; but in the smallest juveniles, the brain completely fills the cranial cavity. Color in life: dark metallic blue, the head and body covered with irregular white or pale bluish spots. After death, the bluish color fades to dark brownish black.
D 8+30-31; 一 27-31; P 29-32; V 29-33; C 20-25/35-38/21-22; LL 94-104; 鳃 4; 鳃耙被刺状的齿板取代了。 头部裸露的, 鳃盖硬骨暴露出来; 在后部地而且腹地被扩大的鳃盖作为一个厚的皮盖; 下颌有二个大又部分重叠的喉盘; 齿锥形, 在骨质板上的组依附于颚骨,外翼骨与齿骨了; 颚骨不存在。 (结构在状似的上颌的侧边,一个颚的硬骨是连接下面颌上颌到后面的皮肤的厚摺层) 泳鳔延长,充满了脂肪; 肠道有螺旋形的瓣膜; osmoregulation 包括在血液的尿素维持与氧化三甲胺,但是尿素不被再吸收藉由肾,而且过度盐被排泄藉由直肠腺。 脑无法置信小,只有占领大约 1% 的头盖洞当成鱼时; 但是在最小的稚鱼中,脑完全地装满头盖的洞。 颜色活着时: 深色的铁蓝色的, 头部与身体覆盖着不规则的白色或灰蓝色的斑点了。 在死亡之后,蓝色的颜色颜色褪到深黑褐色的。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Known as the living fossil. Inhabits steep rocky shores, sheltering in caves during the day (Ref. 38425), with as much as 14 individuals in a single cave (Ref. 38426). Foraging singly over open substrate at night (Ref. 38426), it drifts passively with the current or swims slowly with its paired fins and its second dorsal and anal fins (Ref. 38427). May travel as much as 8 km at night searching for food and retreats to the nearest cave before dawn (Ref. 38426). Preys on fishes and squid (Ref. 26162). Beryx, Polymixia, Symphysanodon, apogonids, a skate, an eel and a swell shark have been known to be eaten (Ref. 11228). Its main enemies are likely to be large sharks (Ref. 26162). Ovoviviparous, with as much as 5-29 young (Ref. 11228, 37171). Gestation period estimated at 3 years, which would be the longest known in vertebrates (Ref. 30865). A small relative gill area (Ref. 38428) restricts coelacanths to a life 'in the slow lane', drift-feeding at night in cold waters and resting in slightly warmer caves for food consumption during day time (Ref. 38429). Recently, Prof Hans Fricke and associates have succeeded in observing and filming Latimeria in their natural habitat. Using a two-man submersible, Fricke found several coelacanths in depths of 120-400 m on the barren lava slopes off Grand Comoro. Coelacanths have distinctive white markings, and this allowed recognition of individuals and tracking of their movements. During the day, Latimeria retreat to caves, with as many as 13 fish crowded together in a single cave. Several individuals occupy overlapping home ranges, and Fricke never saw any aggressive encounters between coelacanths. By resting in caves (were there are no strong currents) the coelacanths save energy and avoid encounters with large predators (deep-water sharks). After sunset, the coelacanths leave their caves and drift slowly across the substrate, presumably looking for food, within 1-3 meters of the bottom. On these nightly hunting forays, the coelacanth may travel as much as 8 km; and before dawn they shelter in the nearest cave. While searching for prey, or moving from one cave to another, Latimeria appears to move in slow motion, either drifting passively with the current and using its flexible pectoral and pelvic fins to adjust its position, or slowly swimming by a synchronous sculling movement of the second dorsal and anal fins. In slow forward swimming, the left pectoral and right pelvic fins move forward, while the right pectoral and left pelvic fins are pulled backward. This tandem movement of alternate paired fins resembles the movement of the forelimbs and hindlimbs of a tetrapod walking on land. Latimeria does not use its lobed fins for walking on the bottom, and even when they are resting in caves they usually do not touch the substrate. Like most slow moving fishes, the coelacanth can make a sudden lunge or fast start by means of a quick flip of its massive caudal fin. During its nightly foraging swims, Latimeria was often seen to perform head-stands, in which it rotates its body into a vertical position, with its head near the bottom and its caudal fin curved perpendicular to its body. It then held this position for two or three minutes at a time. This curious behavior may be used when it is scanning the bottom with its putative electoreceptive rostral organ, or it may be a reaction to the bright lights of Prof. Fricke's submersible (Ref. 38228).

被认定为活化石了。 栖息于被躲藏在洞穴中在白天期间 (参考文献 38425) 的陡峭的岩岸,在一个洞穴中的多达 14个个体。 (参考文献 38426) 各别地觅食在开放性的底层在晚上 (参考文献 38426), 它被动地随着水流飘游或游泳慢慢地用它的偶鳍与它的第二背鳍与臀鳍.(参考文献 38427) 最远可以外游到 8 公里在晚上寻找食物而且在破晓之前撤退回最近的洞穴。 (参考文献 38426) 捕食鱼与乌贼。 (参考文献 26162) 金眼鲷 须银眼鲷 花鲷 ,天竺鲷, 鱼, 鳗鱼与小鲨鱼曾经知道被吃。 (参考文献 11228) 它的主要敌人可能是大的鲨鱼。 (参考文献 26162) 卵胎生又多达 5-29个幼鱼.(参考文献 11228,37171) 妊娠期估计了 3 年, 将会是在脊椎动物被知道的最长的.(参考文献 30865) 一种小的相关鳃区 (参考文献 38428) 限制对生活 '在慢的小路' 的腔棘鱼, 漂流物-在寒冷的水域中进食在晚上而且在白天的时候在些微比较热的洞穴中休息对于摄食量.(参考文献 38429) 最近,教授汉斯 Fricke 与同伴已经成功地在他们的自然栖息地观察而且薄膜 Latimeria 。 使用一二人的能沈入水中的, Fricke 在贫瘠的熔岩斜坡上在深度中发现一些腔棘鱼 120-400 公尺外海的壮观科罗摩。 腔棘鱼有特殊的白色斑纹,而且这允许了个体的辨认与他们的运动的追踪。 在白天期间,洞穴的 Latimeria 休息寓所,与多达 13个鱼在一个洞穴中挤在一起了。 一些个体占领部分重叠的家范围,而且 Fricke 从不见到在腔棘鱼之间的任何与侵略者遭遇。 藉由在洞穴 (是有没有强的水流) 中休息腔棘鱼解救能源而且避开相会有大的掠食者 (深水域鲨鱼). 在日落之后,腔棘鱼离开他们的洞穴而且横过漂流得慢慢底部, 可能寻找食物, 在 1-3 公尺的底部里面。 在这些夜间的猎食攻击上,腔棘鱼可能移动高达 8 公里; 而且在破晓之前他们在最近的洞穴中隐匿。 寻找捕食, 或从一个洞穴移到另外一, Latimeria 似乎也搬进慢的运动被动地以水流漂流而且使用它的柔韧有弹性胸鳍与腹鳍调整它的位置, 或慢慢地摇桨第二个背鳍与臀鳍的运动的同步的游泳。 在慢的向前游泳,左边的胸鳍与右边的腹鳍移动向前地, 然而右边的胸鳍与左边的腹鳍向后地被拉。 交互偶鳍的这次纵排运动在陆地上与四足动物步行的前肢的运动与 hindlimbs 相似。 Latimeria 不会在底部上使用它的叶状鳍用于步行, 甚至他们何时正在洞穴中休息他们通常不碰触底部。 像大多数的缓慢移动的鱼,腔棘鱼能经由一个它的大尾鳍的快香甜烫酒作一个突然的刺或快速的开始。 在它的夜间被觅食的游泳的时候, Latimeria 时常被见到执行头部-台子, 在它旋转它的身体进入一个垂直的位置, 用它的弯曲的在底部附近的头部与它的尾鳍垂直于它的身体。 它然后支撑这一个位置为二或三细小的一次。 这奇怪的行为可能是使用过的当它正在扫描底部的时候用它的想像 electoreceptive 嘴的器官, 或它可能是反应到教授 Fricke 明亮光能沈入水中的.(参考文献 38228)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Despite the lack of an obvious copulatory organ, the reproduction of Latimeria is of the type called "ovoviviparous", which means that it has internal fertilisation, and the fetuses are retained within the mother until they have grown large enough (36-38 cm) to fend for themselves. The eggs are enormous (9 cm in diameter and over 325 g in weight), and the huge yolk supplies all of the nutrients necessary for the growth of the embryo. In 1975, a large female coelacanth in the American Museum of Natural History was found to contain 5 young in individual compartments of the oviduct (uterus). They ranged in length from 301 to 327 mm and had well-developed teeth, fins and scales. Each fetus had a large, flaccid yolk sac attached to its chest. Dr Peter Forey of The Natural History Museum in London recently dissected one of these fetuses and found a 2 mm wide duct that leads directly from the yolk sac into the anterior part of the intestine. This yolk duct serves to move yolk from the yolk sac into the intestine where it is digested by the fetus. The same type of yolk transport into the gut via the yolk duct occurs in pups of ovoviviparous sharks. In some recent publications (Balon et al., 1988; Wourms et al., 1988; Bruton, 1989; Balon, 1991; Wourms et al., 1991) it was suggested (or even stated as a fact) that the reproduction of Latimeria involves "oophagy" or "embryonic cannibalism" (i.e., that the unborn pups feed on eggs or other siblings while in the uterus). According to Heemstra and Compagno (1989), there was no evidence to support this "oophagy" hypothesis, and Dr Forey's examination of a pup (from the original litter of 5 in the American Museum) found that its intestine was full of yolk (which is what one would expect with a direct connection between yolk sac and intestine) and contained "no trace of muscle fibres or anything else that might suggest that it had eaten a sib". Despite the misgivings of Heemstra and Compagno (1989), Wourms et al. (1991) again suggested that "Oophagy, the ingestion of supernumerary eggs by developing young, may well be the major source of supplemental nutrients for coelacanth pups." Speculating from a female that contained 19 ovulated eggs, they calculated that "19 embryos would occupy 7.0 meters of uterine space in a 2.0 meter fish" [the implication being that this is physically impossible]. They then concluded that "At the very most, such a fish could accommodate seven or eight developing embryos, and 11 or 12 eggs would then be superfluous-eggs ... [which] serve as nutrients for the embryos that survive to term". Then, in August 1991 a large pregnant female coelacanth, 179 cm long and weighing 98 kg, was caught by a trawler off Pebane on the northern coast of Mozambique (Bruton et al., 1992). This specimen was given to the natural history museum in Maputo, where it was dissected by the Director, Dr Augusto Cabral, who found that it contained 26 near-term pups, 31-36 cm in length. Thanks to the discovery and preservation of this Mozambique female, we now know that it is indeed possible for a coelacanth to have at least 26 pups in a litter, and the "superfluous-eggs" hypothesis of "oophagy" for the coelacanth is itself superfluous. Two pups from the Mozambique specimen were dissected by Heemstra and Greenwood (1992) and found to contain an internal yolk sac, which is the remnant of the large external yolk sac seen on the younger pups from the American Museum specimen. In the later stages of development, as the yolk supply dwindles, the external yolk sac apparently shrinks and is withdrawn into the body cavity. Some of the Mozambique pups had a small external yolk sac, and in others there was only a flat scar along the ventral midline to show where the yolk sac had been. In view of the large size (31-36 cm) and advanced development of the pups from the Mozambique female, the size at birth for Latimeria is probably about 35-38 cm (Ref. 38228). Juveniles are born after 13 months (Refs. 26162, 38222) or 3 years (Ref. 30865) of gestation period. Thus, females may give birth only every second or every third year.印度-西太平洋: 在科摩洛廣為人知壯觀科羅摩與 Anjouan 的族群外海島嶼。 在南非 (參考文獻 11228,38218) ,馬達加斯加 (參考文獻 26162) 與莫三比克的其他族群.(參考文獻 27415) 或許在像 Astove 與 Cosmoledo 的島出現如迷途的魚.(參考文獻 1623) 國際間的買賣禁止。 ( 引用 I, 自從 18.1.1990 以後)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Smith, M.M., 1986. Latimeriidae. p. 152-153. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3185)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 109396)

  极度濒危 (CR) (A2bcd)

CITES (Ref. 94142)




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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.2539   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00827 - 0.01748), b=3.03 (2.93 - 3.13), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.72 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增时间超过14 年 (K=0.06-0.26; tmax=48; Fec=5).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .