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Latimeria chalumnae  Smith, 1939

Coelacanth
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Latimeria chalumnae
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Sarcopterygii 肉鰭亞綱 (葉- 有鰭的魚) (lobe-finned fishes) > Coelacanthiformes (Coelacanths) 腔棘魚目 (Coelacanths) > Latimeriidae (Gombessa) 矛尾魚科 (Gombessa)
Etymology: Latimeria: Taken from Miss Courtenay Latimer worker in the East London Musuem; she contributed to the update of the fish (Coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae) (Ref. 45335);  chalumnae: Chalumnae = the name of river Chalumna in South Africa, where the "first" Coelacanth was found (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Smith.

環境 / 氣候 / 範圍 生態學

; 海洋 居於水底的; 非遷移的; 深度上下限 150 - 700 m (Ref. 38430), usually 180 - 250 m (Ref. 27564).   深水域; 13°C - 25°C (Ref. 38429), preferred ?; 3°S - 34°S, 25°E - 51°E (Ref. 46167)

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Indian Ocean: well known population off the islands of Grand Comoro and Anjouan in the Comoros. Other populations in South Africa (Ref. 11228, 38218), Madagascar (Ref. 26162), and Mozambique (Ref. 27415). Likely to occur as strays at islands like Astove and Cosmoledo (Ref. 1623). International trade banned (CITES I, since 18.1.1990).
印度洋: 在科摩洛廣為人知壯觀科羅摩與 Anjouan 的族群外海島嶼。 在南非 (參考文獻 11228,38218) ,馬達加斯加 (參考文獻 26162) 與莫三比克的其他族群.(參考文獻 27415) 或許在像 Astove 與 Cosmoledo 的島出現如迷途的魚.(參考文獻 1623) 國際間的買賣禁止。 ( CITES I, 自從 18.1.1990 以後)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 150.0, range 145 - 160 cm
Max length : 168 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 30865); 200.0 cm TL (female); 最大體重: 95.0 kg (Ref. 26162); 最大年齡: 48 年 (Ref. 30865)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 8; 背的軟條 (總數): 30-31; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 27 - 31. This species have the following characters: D VIII+30-31; A 27-31; P 29-32; V 29-33; C 20-25/35-38/21-22; LL 94-104; gills 4; gill rakers replaced by spiny tooth-plates. Head naked, the opercular bones exposed; gill cover expanded posteriorly and ventrally as a thick flap of skin; lower jaw with two large, overlapping gular plates; teeth conical, set on bony plates attached to palatines, ectopterygoids, and dentaries; maxilla absent (the structure at the side of the upper jaw that appears to be a maxillary bone is a thick fold of skin connecting the upper jaw to the rear of the lower jaw). Swim bladder elongate, filled with fat; intestine with spiral valve; osmoregulation involves retention of urea and trimethylamine oxide in the blood, but urea is not resorbed by the kidneys and excess salts are excreted by the rectal gland. In adults the brain is incredibly small, occupying only about 1% of the cranial cavity; but in the smallest juveniles, the brain completely fills the cranial cavity. Color in life: dark metallic blue, the head and body covered with irregular white or pale bluish spots. After death, the bluish color fades to dark brownish black.
D 8+30-31; 一 27-31; P 29-32; V 29-33; C 20-25/35-38/21-22; LL 94-104; 鰓 4; 鰓耙被刺狀的齒板取代了。 頭部裸露的, 鰓蓋硬骨暴露出來; 在後部地而且腹地被擴大的鰓蓋作為一個厚的皮蓋; 下頜有二個大又部分重疊的喉盤; 齒錐形, 在骨質板上的組依附於顎骨,外翼骨與齒骨了; 顎骨不存在。 (結構在狀似的上頜的側邊,一個顎的硬骨是連接下面頜上頜到後面的皮膚的厚摺層) 泳鰾延長,充滿了脂肪; 腸道有螺旋形的瓣膜; osmoregulation 包括在血液的尿素維持與氧化三甲胺,但是尿素不被再吸收藉由腎,而且過度鹽被排泄藉由直腸腺。 腦無法置信小,只有佔領大約 1% 的頭蓋洞當成魚時; 但是在最小的稚魚中,腦完全地裝滿頭蓋的洞。 顏色活著時: 深色的鐵藍色的, 頭部與身體覆蓋著不規則的白色或灰藍色的斑點了。 在死亡之後,藍色的顏色顏色褪到深黑褐色的。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Known as the living fossil. Inhabits steep rocky shores, sheltering in caves during the day (Ref. 38425), with as much as 14 individuals in a single cave (Ref. 38426). Foraging singly over open substrate at night (Ref. 38426), it drifts passively with the current or swims slowly with its paired fins and its second dorsal and anal fins (Ref. 38427). May travel as much as 8 km at night searching for food and retreats to the nearest cave before dawn (Ref. 38426). Preys on fishes and squid (Ref. 26162). Beryx, Polymixia, Symphysanodon, apogonids, a skate, an eel and a swell shark have been known to be eaten (Ref. 11228). Its main enemies are likely to be large sharks (Ref. 26162). Ovoviviparous, with as much as 5-29 young (Ref. 11228, 37171). Gestation period estimated at 3 years, which would be the longest known in vertebrates (Ref. 30865). A small relative gill area (Ref. 38428) restricts coelacanths to a life 'in the slow lane', drift-feeding at night in cold waters and resting in slightly warmer caves for food consumption during day time (Ref. 38429). Recently, Prof Hans Fricke and associates have succeeded in observing and filming Latimeria in their natural habitat. Using a two-man submersible, Fricke found several coelacanths in depths of 120-400 m on the barren lava slopes off Grand Comoro. Coelacanths have distinctive white markings, and this allowed recognition of individuals and tracking of their movements. During the day, Latimeria retreat to caves, with as many as 13 fish crowded together in a single cave. Several individuals occupy overlapping home ranges, and Fricke never saw any aggressive encounters between coelacanths. By resting in caves (were there are no strong currents) the coelacanths save energy and avoid encounters with large predators (deep-water sharks). After sunset, the coelacanths leave their caves and drift slowly across the substrate, presumably looking for food, within 1-3 meters of the bottom. On these nightly hunting forays, the coelacanth may travel as much as 8 km; and before dawn they shelter in the nearest cave. While searching for prey, or moving from one cave to another, Latimeria appears to move in slow motion, either drifting passively with the current and using its flexible pectoral and pelvic fins to adjust its position, or slowly swimming by a synchronous sculling movement of the second dorsal and anal fins. In slow forward swimming, the left pectoral and right pelvic fins move forward, while the right pectoral and left pelvic fins are pulled backward. This tandem movement of alternate paired fins resembles the movement of the forelimbs and hindlimbs of a tetrapod walking on land. Latimeria does not use its lobed fins for walking on the bottom, and even when they are resting in caves they usually do not touch the substrate. Like most slow moving fishes, the coelacanth can make a sudden lunge or fast start by means of a quick flip of its massive caudal fin. During its nightly foraging swims, Latimeria was often seen to perform head-stands, in which it rotates its body into a vertical position, with its head near the bottom and its caudal fin curved perpendicular to its body. It then held this position for two or three minutes at a time. This curious behavior may be used when it is scanning the bottom with its putative electoreceptive rostral organ, or it may be a reaction to the bright lights of Prof. Fricke's submersible (Ref. 38228).

被認定為活化石了。 棲息於被躲藏在洞穴中在白天期間 (參考文獻 38425) 的陡峭的岩岸,在一個洞穴中的多達 14個個體。 (參考文獻 38426) 各別地覓食在開放性的底層在晚上 (參考文獻 38426), 它被動地隨著水流飄游或游泳慢慢地用它的偶鰭與它的第二背鰭與臀鰭.(參考文獻 38427) 最遠可以外游到 8 公里在晚上尋找食物而且在破曉之前撤退回最近的洞穴。 (參考文獻 38426) 捕食魚與烏賊。 (參考文獻 26162) 金眼鯛 鬚銀眼鯛 花鯛 ,天竺鯛,魟魚, 鰻魚與小鯊魚曾經知道被吃。 (參考文獻 11228) 它的主要敵人可能是大的鯊魚。 (參考文獻 26162) 卵胎生又多達 5-29個幼魚.(參考文獻 11228,37171) 妊娠期估計了 3 年, 將會是在脊椎動物被知道的最長的.(參考文獻 30865) 一種小的相關鰓區 (參考文獻 38428) 限制對生活 '在慢的小路' 的腔棘魚, 漂流物-在寒冷的水域中進食在晚上而且在白天的時候在些微比較熱的洞穴中休息對於攝食量.(參考文獻 38429) 最近,教授漢斯 Fricke 與同伴已經成功地在他們的自然棲息地觀察而且薄膜 Latimeria 。 使用一二人的能沈入水中的, Fricke 在貧瘠的熔岩斜坡上在深度中發現一些腔棘魚 120-400 公尺外海的壯觀科羅摩。 腔棘魚有特殊的白色斑紋,而且這允許了個體的辨認與他們的運動的追蹤。 在白天期間,洞穴的 Latimeria 休息寓所,與多達 13個魚在一個洞穴中擠在一起了。 一些個體佔領部分重疊的家範圍,而且 Fricke 從不見到在腔棘魚之間的任何與侵略者遭遇。 藉由在洞穴 (是有沒有強的水流) 中休息腔棘魚解救能源而且避開相會有大的掠食者 (深水域鯊魚). 在日落之後,腔棘魚離開他們的洞穴而且橫過漂流得慢慢底部, 可能尋找食物, 在 1-3 公尺的底部裡面。 在這些夜間的獵食攻擊上,腔棘魚可能移動高達 8 公里; 而且在破曉之前他們在最近的洞穴中隱匿。 尋找捕食, 或從一個洞穴移到另外一, Latimeria 似乎也搬進慢的運動被動地以水流漂流而且使用它的柔韌有彈性胸鰭與腹鰭調整它的位置, 或慢慢地搖槳第二個背鰭與臀鰭的運動的同步的游泳。 在慢的向前游泳,左邊的胸鰭與右邊的腹鰭移動向前地, 然而右邊的胸鰭與左邊的腹鰭向後地被拉。 交互偶鰭的這次縱排運動在陸地上與四足動物步行的前肢的運動與 hindlimbs 相似。 Latimeria 不會在底部上使用它的葉狀鰭用於步行, 甚至他們何時正在洞穴中休息他們通常不碰觸底部。 像大多數的緩慢移動的魚,腔棘魚能經由一個它的大尾鰭的快香甜燙酒作一個突然的刺或快速的開始。 在它的夜間被覓食的游泳的時候, Latimeria 時常被見到執行頭部-臺子, 在它旋轉它的身體進入一個垂直的位置, 用它的彎曲的在底部附近的頭部與它的尾鰭垂直於它的身體。 它然後支撐這一個位置為二或三細小的一次。 這奇怪的行為可能是使用過的當它正在掃描底部的時候用它的想像 electoreceptive 嘴的器官, 或它可能是反應到教授 Fricke 明亮光能沈入水中的.(參考文獻 38228)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Despite the lack of an obvious copulatory organ, the reproduction of Latimeria is of the type called "ovoviviparous", which means that it has internal fertilisation, and the fetuses are retained within the mother until they have grown large enough (36-38 cm) to fend for themselves. The eggs are enormous (9 cm in diameter and over 325 g in weight), and the huge yolk supplies all of the nutrients necessary for the growth of the embryo. In 1975, a large female coelacanth in the American Museum of Natural History was found to contain 5 young in individual compartments of the oviduct (uterus). They ranged in length from 301 to 327 mm and had well-developed teeth, fins and scales. Each fetus had a large, flaccid yolk sac attached to its chest. Dr Peter Forey of The Natural History Museum in London recently dissected one of these fetuses and found a 2 mm wide duct that leads directly from the yolk sac into the anterior part of the intestine. This yolk duct serves to move yolk from the yolk sac into the intestine where it is digested by the fetus. The same type of yolk transport into the gut via the yolk duct occurs in pups of ovoviviparous sharks. In some recent publications (Balon et al., 1988; Wourms et al., 1988; Bruton, 1989; Balon, 1991; Wourms et al., 1991) it was suggested (or even stated as a fact) that the reproduction of Latimeria involves "oophagy" or "embryonic cannibalism" (i.e., that the unborn pups feed on eggs or other siblings while in the uterus). According to Heemstra and Compagno (1989), there was no evidence to support this "oophagy" hypothesis, and Dr Forey's examination of a pup (from the original litter of 5 in the American Museum) found that its intestine was full of yolk (which is what one would expect with a direct connection between yolk sac and intestine) and contained "no trace of muscle fibres or anything else that might suggest that it had eaten a sib". Despite the misgivings of Heemstra and Compagno (1989), Wourms et al. (1991) again suggested that "Oophagy, the ingestion of supernumerary eggs by developing young, may well be the major source of supplemental nutrients for coelacanth pups." Speculating from a female that contained 19 ovulated eggs, they calculated that "19 embryos would occupy 7.0 meters of uterine space in a 2.0 meter fish" [the implication being that this is physically impossible]. They then concluded that "At the very most, such a fish could accommodate seven or eight developing embryos, and 11 or 12 eggs would then be superfluous-eggs ... [which] serve as nutrients for the embryos that survive to term". Then, in August 1991 a large pregnant female coelacanth, 179 cm long and weighing 98 kg, was caught by a trawler off Pebane on the northern coast of Mozambique (Bruton et al., 1992). This specimen was given to the natural history museum in Maputo, where it was dissected by the Director, Dr Augusto Cabral, who found that it contained 26 near-term pups, 31-36 cm in length. Thanks to the discovery and preservation of this Mozambique female, we now know that it is indeed possible for a coelacanth to have at least 26 pups in a litter, and the "superfluous-eggs" hypothesis of "oophagy" for the coelacanth is itself superfluous. Two pups from the Mozambique specimen were dissected by Heemstra and Greenwood (1992) and found to contain an internal yolk sac, which is the remnant of the large external yolk sac seen on the younger pups from the American Museum specimen. In the later stages of development, as the yolk supply dwindles, the external yolk sac apparently shrinks and is withdrawn into the body cavity. Some of the Mozambique pups had a small external yolk sac, and in others there was only a flat scar along the ventral midline to show where the yolk sac had been. In view of the large size (31-36 cm) and advanced development of the pups from the Mozambique female, the size at birth for Latimeria is probably about 35-38 cm (Ref. 38228). Juveniles are born after 13 months (Refs. 26162, 38222) or 3 years (Ref. 30865) of gestation period. Thus, females may give birth only every second or every third year.印度洋: 在科摩洛廣為人知壯觀科羅摩與 Anjouan 的族群外海島嶼。 在南非 (參考文獻 11228,38218) ,馬達加斯加 (參考文獻 26162) 與莫三比克的其他族群.(參考文獻 27415) 或許在像 Astove 與 Cosmoledo 的島出現如迷途的魚.(參考文獻 1623) 國際間的買賣禁止。 ( CITES I, 自從 18.1.1990 以後)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Smith, M.M., 1986. Latimeriidae. p. 152-153. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3185)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 109396)

  極危 (CR) (A2bcd)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.2539   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00820 - 0.01762), b=3.03 (2.92 - 3.14), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.72 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增時間超過14 年 (K=0.06-0.26; tmax=48; Fec=5).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .