This page is sponsored by
FishBase Consortium Member

Mobula birostris (Walbaum, 1792)

Giant manta
上传你的 图片 和 影像
Pictures | Videos     Stamps, Coins Misc. | 谷歌图片
Image of Mobula birostris (Giant manta)
Mobula birostris
Picture by Marshall, A.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鳃亚纲 (鲨鱼与 鱼) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Myliobatidae (Eagle and manta rays) > Mobulinae
  More on author: Walbaum.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 礁区鱼类; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 120 m (Ref. 58302).   亞熱帶的; 42°N - 38°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55255)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Circumglobal, tropical to temperate: in the Northern Hemisphere, as far north as southern California and Rhode Island on the United States west and east coasts, Mutsu Bay, Aomori, Japan, the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt and the Azores Islands; in the Southern Hemisphere, as far south as Peru, Uruguay, South Africa and New Zealand. In some locations, including Mozambique, it is sympatric with Manta alfredi.
Circumtropical。 西大西洋: 百慕達群島與美國南卡羅萊那州到巴西, 偶然更北方.(參考文獻 26938)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 400.0, range 380 - 460 cm
Max length : 910 cm WD 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 58048); common length : 450 cm WD 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 3176); 最大体重: 3.0 t (Ref. 5377); 最大年龄: 20 年 (Ref. 31742)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

A giant ray having an extremely broad head with long head fins, and a terminal mouth; upper surface of disc covered with denticles, and tail usually without a spine (Ref. 5578). Blackish above, sometimes with white shoulder patches; white below, with grey edging on disc (Ref. 5578). Tail whiplike but short (Ref. 7251).
一个大型的 鱼有一个非常宽大头部有长的头鳍 , 与一个端位口; 体盘上表面覆盖着细齿了,而且尾部通常没有一根棘。 (参考文献 5578) 背面黑色的, 有时具有白色的肩区块; 腹面白色的, 在体盘上有灰色的边.(参考文献 5578) 尾部鞭状的但是短.(参考文献 7251)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Mainly in near-shore waters, near coral and rocky reefs; sometimes found over deep water (Ref. 12951). Reported along productive coastlines with regular upwelling, oceanic island groups and offshore pinnacles and seamounts (Ref. 82755). Penetrates shallow muddy bays and the intertidal and occurs off river mouths (Ref. 9911). Pelagic (Ref. 58302). Occurs singly or in loose aggregations (Ref. 12951). Mainly plankton feeders, but may feed on small and moderate-sized fishes as well (Ref. 9911). Leaps out the water mainly in spring and autumn, possibly as part of mating behavior (Ref. 31742). Easily approached (Ref. 9911). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 6902). Commonly caught by tuna gillnet and harpoon fisheries. Utilized for its gill filter plates (very high value), meat, cartilage and skin (Ref.58048). Liver yields oil and skin used as abrasive (Ref. 6902). World's largest ray (Ref. 37816).

主要在近岸水域, 在珊瑚礁与岩礁的附近; 有时发现在深水域上面了。 (参考文献 12951) 深入泥泞的浅水海湾与潮间带而且出现河口外。 (参考文献 9911) 各别地或在松散的鱼群中生存。 (参考文献 12951) 主要地浮游生物捕食者, 但是可能吃小的与也中等大小的鱼.(参考文献 9911) 出自水的跳跃主要在春天与秋天, 可能地为交配行为的一部份.(参考文献 31742) 容易接近。 (参考文献 9911) 卵胎生的.(参考文献 6902) 肝脏产生油,而且皮肤用作了研磨剂。 (参考文献 6902) 世界最大的鳍条.(参考文献 37816)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Bears up to 2 young (Ref. 5578); born at 122-127 cm WD (Ref.58048). A female of 550 cm width and weighing 1050 kg was collected in the Galapagos in June and was carrying a well-developed embryo of 12.7 kg (Ref. 28023). Size at partuition might be from 1.1 to 1.3 m and from 9.1 to 1.14 kg (Ref. 31742). Yano et al (1999) (Ref. 35892) describe the mating behavior of manta rays based on observations off Ogasawara Islands, Japan, in the following sequence: 1) 'chasing', the male rapidly follows behind the tail of the female and attacks her several times; 2) 'nipping', the male nips the tip of the pectoral fin of the female and then moves to the ventral surface of the female; 3) 'copulating', the male inserts a clasper into the cloacaof the female and copulates abdomen-to-abdomen, up to 123 seconds; 4) 'post-copulating'; 5) 'separating'. (Ref. 49562).Circumtropical。 西大西洋: 百慕達群島與美國南卡羅萊那州到巴西, 偶然更北方.(參考文獻 26938)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : McEachran, John | 合作者

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 119314)

  次级保育类动物, 见 IUCN 红皮书 (VU) (A2abd+3bd+4abd); Date assessed: 01 November 2010

CITES (Ref. 115941)


对人类的威胁

  无害处的 (Ref. 9911)





人类利用

渔业: 低经济
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

更多信息

国家
FAO区域
生态系
标本纪录
简介
Stocks
生态学
食性
食物相
食物消耗量
定量
俗名
同种异名
新陈代谢
捕食者
生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
产卵场
产卵群集
孕卵数

卵的发育
年龄范围
成长
体长-体重
体长-体长
体长-频率
形态测量图
型态特徵
仔鱼
稚鱼动力学
入添量
丰度
参考文献
养殖
养殖信息
品种
遗传学
基因序列
遗传率
疾病
加工
Mass conversion
合作者
照片
Stamps, Coins Misc.
声音
神经毒
速度
泳型
鳃区
Otoliths
脑重体重比
眼睛色素

工具

特别资料

下载 XML

网络资源

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 22.8 - 29, mean 27.6 (based on 3220 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增时间超过14 年 (tm=6; tmax>20; Fec=1).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (78 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.