Tenualosa toli  (Valenciennes, 1847)

Toli shad
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Tenualosa toli   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Tenualosa toli (Toli shad)
Tenualosa toli
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Strahlenflosser) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Tenualosa: Latin, tenuis = thin + Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).

Lebensraum / Klimazone / Range Ökologie

; seewasser; süßwasser; brackwasser; anadrom (Ref. 51243); tiefenbereich 10 - ? m (Ref. 26929).   Tropical; 23°N - 7°S, 70°E - 119°E (Ref. 54917)

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm 29.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 12693); common length : 40.0 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 4832); max. veröff. Alter: 2 Jahre (Ref. 26929)

Kurzbeschreibung Morphologie | Morphometrie

Rückenflossenstacheln (insgesamt): 0; Afterflossenstacheln 0. Belly with 28 to 30 scutes. A distinct median notch in upper jaw, which distinguishes it from other similar clupeids, except Hilsa kelee. Gill rakers fine but not numerous, 60 to 100 on lower part of arch. Caudal fin short. At most, a dark diffuse mark behind gill opening, but no other spots on flank.

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: India to the Java Sea and the South China Sea. Newly recorded from Mauritius (Ref. 33390). May be found in Cambodian Mekong near the Viet Nam border (Ref. 12693).

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

Inhabits fast-flowing, turbid estuaries and adjacent coastal waters (Ref. 26929). Schooling in coastal waters, euryhaline and perhaps anadromous, ascending rivers to breed (but in some areas fishery workers claim that it does not). A protandrous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). Presumably its biology is similar to that of T. ilisha, but the fewer gill rakers suggest that it takes larger food organisms. Reported to feed on zooplankton (Ref. 58784). More data needed especially since it is not always distinguished from T. ilisha, especially at juvenile stages. Marketed fresh or dried-salted.

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator | Partner

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Bedrohung für Menschen

  Harmless




Nutzung durch Menschen

Fischereien: hoch kommerziell
FAO(Fischereien: production, Artbeschreibung; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01050 (0.00597 - 0.01846), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  2.5   ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 69278):  hoch, Verdopplung der Population dauert weniger als 15 Monate. (K=0.7; assuming tmax>3, fec > 10,000).
Verwundbarkeit (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Preiskategorie (Ref. 80766):   Low.