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Thunnus thynnus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Atlantic bluefin tuna
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Thunnus thynnus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Scombridae (Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) 鯖科 (Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Scombrinae
Etymology: Thunnus: Greek, thynnos = tunna (Ref. 45335).

環境 / 氣候 / 範圍 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 985 m (Ref. 55291), usually 0 - 100 m.   亞熱帶的; 3°C - 30°C (Ref. 88796); 76°N - 58°S, 99°W - 42°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Labrador and Newfoundland to Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea to Venezuela and Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Lofoten Islands off Norway to Canary Islands, including the Mediterranean and the southern part of the Black Sea (Ref. 6769). Reported from Mauritania (Ref. 5377). There is a subpopulation off South Africa. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
西大西洋: 加拿大,墨西哥灣 , 與加勒比海到委內瑞拉與巴西。 東大西洋: Lofoten 島外海的挪威到加納利群島, 包括地中海與黑海的南部.(參考文獻 6769) 記錄來自茅利塔尼亞了。 (參考文獻 5377) 有一個子族群南非外海。 高度遷移的種,1982年海事法會議的附件一.(參考文獻 26139)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 97 - 110 cm
Max length : 458 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 26340); common length : 200 cm FL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 168); 最大體重: 684.0 kg (Ref. 26340); 最大年齡: 32 年 (Ref. 5810)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 12 - 14; 背的軟條 (總數): 13-15; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 13 - 16; 脊椎骨: 39. A very large species, deepest near the middle of the first dorsal fin base. The second dorsal fin higher than the first; the pectoral fins are very short, less than 80% of head length. Swim bladder present. Lower sides and belly silvery white with colorless transverse lines alternated with rows of colorless dots. The first dorsal fin is yellow or bluish; the second reddish-brown; the anal fin and finlets dusky yellow and edged with black; the median caudal keel is black in adults. May be confused with several other tunas, these are typically much smaller and easily distinguished by specific patterns of stripes, bands or dots.
一個非常大的種, 深的在第一背鰭基底的中央的附近。 比第一個高的第二個背鰭; 胸鰭非常短, 少於 80% 的頭長。 有泳鰾。 下側與腹面銀白色有無色的與列的無色點一起輪流的橫切線。 第一背鰭是黃色或藍色的; 第二個紅褐色的; 臀鰭與離鰭暗黃色而且有黑色邊緣了; 中央的尾部龍骨脊是黑色的當成魚時。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Oceanic but seasonally coming close to shore. They school by size, sometimes together with albacore, yellowfin, bigeye, skipjack etc. Visual predators (Ref. 88866) preying on small schooling fishes (anchovies, sauries, hakes) or on squids and red crabs. Live up to 40 years in the western Atlantic (Ref. 88822). Weight up to 900 kg (Ref. 88823). Eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 6769). Juvenile growth is rapid (about 30 cm / year) but slower than in other tuna and billfish species (Ref. 88867). Adult growth is considerably slower, with about 10 years needed to reach two thirds of maximum length. Commercially cultured in Japan. Utilized fresh for sashimi, also canned (Ref. 9988). Become rare because of massive overfishing (Ref. 35388).

大洋性的但是季節性地接近海岸而且能容忍寬範圍的溫度。 他們魚群依大小, 有時伴隨著巴鰹魚,黃鰭, bigeye, 縱帶鰺等等捕食小的群游性魚 (鯷魚,針魚, 鱈魚) 或在烏賊與紅色的螃蟹上。 商業地在日本養殖。 生鮮使用用作生魚片, 也將.裝於罐頭 (參考文獻 9988) 變成稀有的由於大量的過度捕撈。 (參考文獻 35388)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Oviparous batch spawner, with an inter-spawning interval of 1-2 days in the Mediterranean Sea (Ref. 88871). Females larger than 205 cm fork length are estimated to have a mean fecundity of 30-60 and 13-15 million eggs, in the western and eastern Atlantic respectively (Ref. 40805, Ref. 88871). Spawning occurs when sea surface temperatures are between 22.6-27.5 ºC and 22.5-25.5 ºC in the Gulf of Mexico and Mediterranean Sea respectively (88868). Spawning occurs between June and August in the Mediterranean Sea (Ref. 88868). Eggs are released directly to the water column and hatch after 2 days (Ref. 88823). At 24°C, embryo development lasts about 32 hours and larval stages about 30 days. Egg size 1.0 mm, larval length at hatching 2.8 mm. Spawning grounds are mainly known from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, but the presence of mature individuals and larvae far from these areas (e.g. Bahamas and central North Atlantic Ocean) suggest that other spawning grounds may also be utilized (Ref. 88873, Ref. 88874, Ref. 88872). Appears to display homing behaviour with (western-tagged individuals migrating back to specific spawning sites either in the Gulf of Mexico or the Mediterranean Sea) (Ref. 88872, Ref. 88870). Fidelity to natal areas seem to occur once individuals reach maturity, i.e. after returning to either the western or eastern spawning grounds (Ref. 88868). 西大西洋: 加拿大,墨西哥灣 , 與加勒比海到委內瑞拉與巴西。 東大西洋: Lofoten 島外海的挪威到加納利群島, 包括地中海與黑海的南部.(參考文獻 6769) 記錄來自茅利塔尼亞了。 (參考文獻 5377) 有一個子族群南非外海。 高度遷移的種,1982年海事法會議的附件一.(參考文獻 26139)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Collette, Bruce B. | 合作者

Collette, B.B., 1999. Mackerels, molecules, and morphology. p. 149-164. In B. Séret and J.-Y. Sire (eds.) Proc. 5th Indo-Pac. Fish Conf., Noumea, Paris. (Ref. 33246)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 115185)

  瀕危 (EN) (A2bd)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的




人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | 周邊海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.5 - 24.7, mean 12.6 (based on 3084 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00942 - 0.01682), b=3.01 (2.97 - 3.05), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.05-0.06; tm=3-5; tmax=15; Fec=10 million).
Prior r = 0.36, 2 SD range = 0.21 - 0.64, log(r) = -1.02, SD log(r) = 0.29, Based on: 4 M, 23 K, 7 tgen, 6 tmax, 5 Fec records
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (82 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.