Classification / Names
आम नाम | उपशब्द | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
ऐकटीनोप्टीरेजी (रेज़-फिन्नढ मछलियाँ)
(Perch-likes) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; स्वच्छ जल, अलवण जल; खारा बेनथोपिलाजिक; pH range: 6.0 - 9.0; dH range: 5 - 20; पोटामोड़िरोमस (Ref. 51243); गहराई सीमा 1 - 7 m (Ref. 4967). Tropical; 11°C - 36°C (Ref. 3); 35°N - 9°S, 17°W - 36°E
Africa and Eurasia: South Morocco, Sahara, Niger-Benue system, rivers Senegal, Sassandra, Bandama, Boubo, Mé, Comoé, Bia, Ogun and Oshun, Volta system, Chad-Shari system (Ref. 5163), middle Congo River basin in the Ubangi, Uele (Ref. 55074), Itimbiri, Aruwimi (Ref. 55074, 106290), Lindi-Tshopo (Ref. 106290) and Wagenia Falls (Ref. 106245) in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lakes Albert (Ref. 55074) and Turkana, Nile system and Jordan system (Ref. 5163). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Length at first maturity / आकार / वज़न / Age
Maturity: Lm 7.0, range 20 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 34290); common length : 30.0 cm SL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 34290); अधिकतम प्रकाशित वज़न: 300.00 g (Ref. 3799); अधिकतम सूचित उम्र: 7 वर्षो (Ref. 164)
पृष्ठीय रीढ़ (सम्पूर्ण): 13 - 16; पृष्ठीय सौफट रेज़ (सम्पूर्ण): 10-14; गुदा कांटा 3; ऐनल सौफट रेज़: 8 - 10. Diagnosis: upper profile of head not convex; lower pharyngeal bone about as long as broad, and with anterior lamella shorter than toothed area; median pharyngeal teeth not broadened; dorsal fin with 14-16 spines and 10-14 soft rays (mean 15, 12); 8-11 lower gillrakers; dark longitudinal band appears on flanks when agitated; no bifurcated dark vertical bars on flanks; dorsal and caudal fins not or feebly blotched (Ref. 53405). Body brownish-olivaceous with an iridescent blue sheen; lips bright green (Ref. 34290, 53405). Chest pinkish (Ref. 34290). Dorsal, caudal and anal fins brownish-olivaceous with yellow spots, dorsal and anal fins outlined by narrow orange band; "tilapian" spot large, extending from last spine to 4th soft ray and always bordered by yellow band (Ref. 34290, 53405). Specimens 2-14 cm SL with completely yellowish or greyish caudal fin without dots, but tend to develop a greyish caudal fin with dots of increasing size during development; above 14 cm SL, this species has greyish caudal fins with dots on entire caudal fin (Ref. 57660).
Highly adaptable and tolerates varying water qualities; can be found across a wide range of temperatures and salinities, even surviving marine conditions (Ref. 52307). Occasionally form schools; mainly diurnal. Prefer shallow, vegetated areas (Ref. 4967). Fry are common in marginal vegetation and juveniles are found in the seasonal floodplain. Herbivorous (Ref. 52307), feed on water plants and epiphyton, and some invertebrates. Substrate spawner (Ref. 28714, 52307). Parental care is very thorough and undertaken by both parties; large specimens may deposit 1000 eggs per spawn, preferably on hard surfaces; hatching occurs about 96 hours post spawning, and juveniles swim freely about 4-6 days later (Ref. 52307). Larvae develop in close association with substrate. Extended temperature range 6.5 - 42.5 °C, natural temperature range 10.5 - 36°C (Ref. 3).
Spawns in lake bottoms with pebbles or sand and abundant vegetation (Ref. 3). Lays adhesive eggs on the substratum which are guarded by both parents (Ref. 6298). Reported to deposit and guard eggs in shallow nest (Ref. 12069). Produces up to 1000 eggs (Ref. 1672).
Dunz, A.R. and U.K. Schliewen, 2013. Molecular phylogeny and revised classification of the haplotilapiine cichlid fishes formerly referred to as "Tilapia". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 68(1):64-80. (Ref. 93285)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
मात्स्यिकी: व्यापारिक; जलीयकृषि: व्यापारिक; जलजीवालय: व्यापारिक
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.01393 - 0.01977), b=2.98 (2.93 - 3.03), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
लौटाव (Ref. 69278
): माध्यम, न्यूनतम जनसंख्या दुगनी होने का समय 1.4 - 4.4 वर्ष। (K=0.2-0.5; tm=2-3; tmax=7; Fec = 715 - 1,147).
Prior r = 0.68, 2 SD range = 0.26 - 1.77, log(r) = -0.39, SD log(r) = 0.48, Based on: 7 K, 3 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .