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Squalus acanthias Linnaeus, 1758

Picked dogfish
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Squalus acanthias   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Squalus acanthias
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Squaliformes (Bramble, sleeper and dogfish sharks) 角鯊目 (Bramble, sleeper and dogfish sharks) > Squalidae (Dogfish sharks) 棘鮫科 (Dogfish sharks)
Etymology: Squalus: Genus name from Latin 'squalus' meaning shark (Ref. 6885, 27436);  acanthias: Genus name from the Latin 'squalus' meaning shark; species name from the Greek 'akanthias' referring to the spines (Ref. 6885, 27436).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Issue
Squalus suckleyi (Girard, 1855) has been resurected by Ebert et al. (2010: Ref. 85328) in the North Pacific where it replaces Squalus acanthias Linnaeus, 1758.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 1460 m (Ref. 26346), usually 50 - 300 m (Ref. 43939).   溫帶; 7°C - 15°C (Ref. 247); 81°N - 57°S, 82°W - 171°W (Ref. 247)

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Northern and Southern Hemispheres, rare in the Atlantic Arctic. Not in the North Pacific (Ref. 119696). .All records from North Pacific refer to Squalus suckleyi (Girard, 1855) (Ref. 85328). Appendix II (northern hemisphere populations) of the Bonn Convention (2009).
西大西洋: 格陵蘭到阿根廷。 東大西洋: 冰島與莫曼斯克海岸 (俄國) 到南非, 包括地中海與黑海。 西太平洋: 白令海到紐西蘭。 來自外海的新幾內亞的報告是可疑的。 (參考文獻 6871) 東太平洋: 白令海到智利。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 81.4, range 69 - 100 cm
Max length : 95.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 119696); 122.0 cm (female); common length : 100.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. ); 最大體重: 9.1 kg (Ref. 11389); 最大年齡: 75 年 (Ref. 39247)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 2; 背的軟條 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 0; 脊椎骨: 101 - 109. This moderately sized species is distinguished by the following set of characters: very slender body, abdomen width 7.2-9.2% TL; narrow head, width at mouth 7.9-10.2% TL; mouth width 1.7-2.2 times its horizontal prenarial length; moderately long snout, preoral length 2.2-2.5 times horizontal prenarial length, 8.5-9.8% TL; single-lobed anterior nasal flap; small dorsal fins, raked, first dorsal-fin height 1.1-1.3 times its inner margin length, second dorsal-fin height 0.7-0.9 times its inner margin length; origin of first dorsal-fin located just posterior to pectoral-fin free rear tips; exposed bases of dorsal-fin spines relatively narrow, 0.4-0.7% TL; short spine of first dorsal fin, exposed length 1.7-2.7% TL; pectoral-fin anterior margin 1.9-3.1 times its inner margin length; preventral caudal margin 1.9-2.6 times inner margin of pelvic fin; pale caudal fin with poorly demarcated, whitish margin, blackish caudal blotch at the apex of upper lobe, anterior margins of both lobes whitish in juveniles; dark caudal bar absent; dorsal and lateral surfaces of body bluish grey with an irregular array of moderately-large white spots; whitish ventrally; flank denticles tricuspid; monospondylous centra 41-45, precaudal centra 74-79, total centra 100-105 (Ref. 58446).
一隻瘦的狗鯊具有一個狹窄的﹐尖的吻與獨特的白色斑點;(參考文獻 5578) 二背鰭具有無凹槽的大棘, 第一背鰭棘起點在胸鰭後頂端後面.(參考文獻 247) 背面灰色的, 腹面白色的; 偶然地沒有斑點.(參考文獻 5578)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Possibly the most abundant living shark (Ref. 247). A demersal, inshore and offshore dogfish of the continental and insular shelf and upper slopes (Ref. 247, 11230, 119696). Usually near the bottom, but also in midwater and at the surface (Ref. 26346); occurs mainly between 10-200 m depth (Ref. 247). Males and gravid females usually found shallower than non-gravid females. Tolerates brackish water, often found in enclosed bays and estuaries. Reported to enter freshwater (Ref. 11980) but cannot survive there for more than a few hours (Ref. 247). Highly migratory species, used to be observed in large foraging schools with up to thousands of individuals, usually segregated by size and /or sex, with schools of large gravid females preferentially targeted by fisheries. Their latitudinal (north-south) and depth-related (nearshore-offshore) movements appear to be correlated with their preferred temperature (Ref. 247). Tagging experiments showed that populations in the northern North Sea and northwest Scotland made winter migrations to off Norway and summer migrations to Scotland (Ref. 88880, 88881). Transoceanic migrations recorded, but rare (Ref. 88864). Longevity in the northern Atlantic is about 35-50 years (Ref. 88882), but most live only 20-24 years (Ref. 88187). Growth is slow. At sexual maturity, males are 60-70 cm long, females 75-90 cm (Ref. 35388). Gestation period is 2 years (Ref. 36731). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). Feeds on a diversity of prey, ranging from comb jellyfish, squid, mackarel and herring to a wide array of benthic fishes, shrimps, crabs and even sea cucumbers (Ref. 93252). The only species of horned sharks that can inflict toxins with its tail. Detects weak electric fields generated by potential prey (Ref. 10311). Utilized for human consumption, liver oil, vitamins, sand paper, leather, fertilizer, etc. (Ref. 247, 27436). Eaten fried, broiled, and baked (Ref. 9988).

可能最豐富活的鯊魚.(參考文獻 247) 一種近岸的與大陸與海島大陸棚與上層斜坡的外海狗鯊.(參考文獻 247,11230) 通常在底部的附近, 也在中層水域中而在表面.(參考文獻 26346) 時常發現於封閉的海灣與河口。 (參考文獻 247) 報告進入淡水 (參考文獻 11980) 但是不能夠在那裡存活超過個小時.(參考文獻 247) 魚群主要地分離依大小與性別; 混合的魚群也報告。 (參考文獻 247) 成長慢。 在性成熟,雄性是 60-70 公分長, 雌性 75-90 公分.(參考文獻 35388) 妊娠期是 2 年。 (參考文獻 36731) 卵胎生的 (參考文獻 205), 1 到 20 幼魚在一胎.(參考文獻 247) 能施放的有角鯊魚的唯一的種毒素用它的尾部。 供人類食用, 肝油,維他命,沙子紙,皮革,肥料,等等.(參考文獻 247,27436) 油炸後食用, 烤的與烘乾的.(參考文獻 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Ovoviviparous, with litters of 1 to 21 young (Ref. 247, 88865). Mating probably occurs in winter. Gestation period of 18 to 24 months, longest known of all chondrichthyans (Ref. 26346). Size at birth 18-30 cm (Ref. 26346). In the northeast Atlantic, pups are born in winter, with size at birth about 26-28 cm (Ref. 88864). Sex ratio at birth is 1:1. Gravid females congregate in enclosed shallow bays to give birth (Ref. 247). The mother shark experiences a series of rhythmic contractions, just like in mammals, and the young are delivered head first. Larger older females have bigger litters with larger pups; a female with 100 cm TL carries on average 4 times as many embryos compared to a 70 cm female and the former have higher survival rates than those born to small females (Ref. 4856, 88869, 88883).西大西洋: 格陵蘭到阿根廷。 東大西洋: 冰島與莫曼斯克海岸 (俄國) 到南非, 包括地中海與黑海。 西太平洋: 白令海到紐西蘭。 來自外海的新幾內亞的報告是可疑的。 (參考文獻 6871) 東太平洋: 白令海到智利。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | 合作者

Ebert, D.A., W.T. White, K.J. Goldman, L.J.V. Compagno, T.S. Daly-Engel and R.D. Ward, 2010. Resurrection and redescription of Squalus suckleyi (Girard, 1854) from the North Pacific, with comments on the Squalus acanthias subgroup (Squaliformes: Squalidae). Zootaxa 2612:22-40. (Ref. 85328)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  有毒的 (Ref. 4690)





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 4.2 - 18.7, mean 9.9 (based on 4651 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00282 (0.00231 - 0.00344), b=3.07 (3.01 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 12.2 (9.5 - 15.9) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 30 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增時間超過14 年 (rm=0.034; K=0.03-0.07; tm=10-30; tmax=75; Fec=1).
Prior r = 0.07, 95% CL = 0.04 - 0.12, Based on 7 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (64 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.