Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Syngnathus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 15 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 61°N - 43°N, 11°W - 13°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6733)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Snout cylindrical. Pectoral and caudal fins present. With 13-15 bony plates between head and dorsal fin (Ref. 35388). Caudal fin somewhat angulous, diamond shaped (Ref. 59043).
Northeast Atlantic: Bergen, Norway and southern portions British Isles to Bay of Biscay.
Often found on sandy shores among floating or attached seaweeds (Ref. 6733). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Spawns in summer. Young are sometimes caught pelagically in the North Sea (Ref. 35388).
Dawson, C.E., 1986. Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00049 (0.00021 - 0.00115), b=3.12 (2.92 - 3.32), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.40 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.75).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (19 of 100) .