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Scophthalmus maximus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

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Image of Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)
Scophthalmus maximus
Picture by Quantz, G.

Classification / Names Nombres comunes | Sinónimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterígios (peces con aletas radiadas) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Scophthalmidae (Turbots)
Etymology: Scophthalmus: Greek, skopelos = a lantern fish + Greek, ophthalmos = eyes (Ref. 45335).

Medioambiente / Clima / Gama Ecología

; marino; salobre demersal; oceanodromo (Ref. 51243); rango de profundidad 20 - 70 m (Ref. 6302).   Temperate; 70°N - 30°N, 23°W - 36°E

Distribución Países | Áreas FAO | Ecosistemas | Ocurrencias, apariciones | Point map | Introducciones | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean and along the European coasts to Arctic Circle; also found in most of the Baltic Sea. Subspecies Psetta maxima maeotica in the Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Tamaño / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm 34.7, range 41 - 54 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL macho / no sexado; (Ref. 4703); common length : 50.0 cm TL macho / no sexado; (Ref. 35388); common length :70 cm TL (female); peso máximo publicado: 25.0 kg (Ref. 9988); edad máxima reportada: 25 años (Ref. 32766)

Short description Morfología | Morfometría

Body almost circular. Eye side without scales but with large bony tubercles (Ref. 35388).

Biología     Glosario (por ej. epibenthic)

Adults live on sandy, rocky or mixed bottoms; rather common in brackish waters. Feed mainly on other bottom-living fishes (sand-eels, gobies, etc.), and also, to a lesser extent, on larger crustaceans and bivalves. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Spawning season is between April and August; pelagic eggs. May reach 25 kg (Ref. 9988). Highly esteemed food fish. Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Madurez | Reproducción | Puesta | Huevos | Fecundidad | Larva

Spawning usually happens between the months of February and April in the Mediterranean and from May to July in the Atlantic. Sequenced spawning every 2-4 days. Eggs have a single fat drop. Larvae are initially symmetric but, at the end of the metamorphosis (day 40-50, 25 mm), the right eye moves to the left side, losing its initial bilateral symmetry. Egg size 0.9 - 1.2 mm, larval length at hatching 2.7-3.1 mm.

Main reference Upload your references | Referencias | Coordinador | Colaboradores

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Pesquerías: comercial; Acuicultura: comercial; pesca deportiva: si; Acuario: Acuarios públicos
FAO(Acuicultura: producción, species profile; pesquerías: producción; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us


Special reports

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Fuentes de Internet

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.9 - 11.9, mean 9.4 (based on 239 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5645   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00871 - 0.01319), b=3.07 (3.01 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nivel trófico (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resiliencia (Ref. 69278):  Medio, población duplicada en un tiempo mínimo de 1.4-4.4 años (K=0.15-0.28; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=5 million).
Prior r = 0.45, 2 SD range = 0.25 - 0.82, log(r) = -0.8, SD log(r) = 0.3, Based on: 16 K, 3 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.