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Scophthalmus maximus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

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Scophthalmus maximus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)
Scophthalmus maximus
Picture by Quantz, G.

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ikan bertulan sejati > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Scophthalmidae (Turbots)
Etymology: Scophthalmus: Greek, skopelos = a lantern fish + Greek, ophthalmos = eyes (Ref. 45335).

Lingkungan / Klimat / Range Ekologi

; laut; payau dasar (demersal); oceanodromus (Ref. 51243); kisaran kedalaman 20 - 70 m (Ref. 6302).   Temperate; 70°N - 30°N, 23°W - 36°E

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean and along the European coasts to Arctic Circle; also found in most of the Baltic Sea. Subspecies Psetta maxima maeotica in the Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm 34.7, range 41 - 54 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 4703); common length : 50.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 35388); common length :70 cm TL (female); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 25.0 kg (Ref. 9988); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 25 Tahun (Ref. 32766)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Body almost circular. Eye side without scales but with large bony tubercles (Ref. 35388).

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Adults live on sandy, rocky or mixed bottoms; rather common in brackish waters. Feed mainly on other bottom-living fishes (sand-eels, gobies, etc.), and also, to a lesser extent, on larger crustaceans and bivalves. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Spawning season is between April and August; pelagic eggs. May reach 25 kg (Ref. 9988). Highly esteemed food fish. Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Spawning usually happens between the months of February and April in the Mediterranean and from May to July in the Atlantic. Sequenced spawning every 2-4 days. Eggs have a single fat drop. Larvae are initially symmetric but, at the end of the metamorphosis (day 40-50, 25 mm), the right eye moves to the left side, losing its initial bilateral symmetry. Egg size 0.9 - 1.2 mm, larval length at hatching 2.7-3.1 mm.

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator | mitra

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia


penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: komersial; Budidaya air: komersial; Ikan buruan: ya; Akuarium: Akuarium publik
FAO(Budidaya air: production, profail spesis; Perikanan: production; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Alat, peralatan

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Sumber internet

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.9 - 11.9, mean 9.4 (based on 239 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5645   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00871 - 0.01319), b=3.07 (3.01 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 69278):  sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (K=0.15-0.28; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=5 million).
Prior r = 0.45, 2 SD range = 0.25 - 0.82, log(r) = -0.8, SD log(r) = 0.3, Based on: 16 K, 3 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   Very high.