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Pleuronectes platessa  Linnaeus, 1758

European plaice
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Pleuronectes platessa
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Classification / Names Nombres comunes | Sinónimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterígios (peces con aletas radiadas) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Pleuronectes: Greek, pleura = side, ribe + Greek, nekton = swimmer (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Linnaeus.

Medioambiente / Clima / Gama Ecología

; marino; salobre demersal; oceanodromo (Ref. 51243); rango de profundidad 0 - 200 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 50 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 2°C - 15°C (Ref. 5504); 72°N - 36°N, 54°W - 45°E

Distribución Países | Áreas FAO | Ecosistemas | Ocurrencias, apariciones | Point map | Introducciones | Faunafri

Northern Sea. Reports from the Mediterranean Sea appear to be misidentifications of P. flesus. It may have been present in some areas of the Mediterranean in the past, as a result of climatic changes related to the ice age, but at present times seem to be absent (Ref. 89040).

Length at first maturity / Tamaño / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm 30.8, range 24 - 42 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL macho / no sexado; (Ref. 4705); common length : 40.0 cm TL macho / no sexado; (Ref. 3397); peso máximo publicado: 7.0 kg (Ref. 173); edad máxima reportada: 50 años (Ref. 173)

Short description Morfología | Morfometría

Espinas dorsales (total): 0; Radios blandos dorsales (total): 65-79; Espinas anales 0; Radios blandos anales: 48 - 59. Smooth with small scales. Bony ridge behind the eyes. Upper side brown or greenish brown with irregularly distributed bright red or orange spots. The underside is white. Lateral line straight, slightly curved above pectoral fin. Dorsal fin reaching eye. More than 30 vertebrae.

Biología     Glosario (por ej. epibenthic)

Adults live on mixed bottoms, the older the deeper the occurrence; small individuals are usually seen on bathing beaches (Ref. 9988). Occurs on mud and sand bottom from a few meters down to about 100 m, at sea, estuaries and rarely entering freshwaters (Ref. 59043). Reported as resident intertidal species with homing behavior (Ref. 32612). Feed mainly on thin-shelled mollusks and polychaetes. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). The most important flatfish for fisheries in Europe. Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Active at night in the very shallow water while day time is spent buried in the sand. Stationary for long periods, tagging experiments have shown that their spawning migrations can be long. Changes in the environmental conditions have been disadvantageous. Populations in Kattegat and Danish belts decreased in 1980's and early 1990's due to discharge of nutritive salts. Wadden sea is still an excellent nursery ground (Ref.35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior Madurez | Reproducción | Puesta | Huevos | Fecundidad | Larva

Adult spawn when the temperature is around 6 °C (Ref. 4705).

Main reference Upload your references | Referencias | Coordinador : Amaoka, Kunio | Colaboradores

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Pesquerías: muy comercial; Acuicultura: comercial; pesca deportiva: si; Acuario: Acuarios públicos
FAO(pesquerías: producción, species profile; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Herramientas

Special reports

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Fuentes de Internet

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.8 - 12.4, mean 10.2 (based on 658 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00691 - 0.00872), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nivel trófico (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Resiliencia (Ref. 69278):  Medio, población duplicada en un tiempo mínimo de 1.4-4.4 años (K=0.06-0.34; tm=2-6; tmax=30; Fec=50,000).
Prior r = 0.39, 2 SD range = 0.2 - 0.77, log(r) = -0.94, SD log(r) = 0.34, Based on: 4 M, 15 K, 42 tgen, 3 tmax, 26 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.