Pleuronectes platessa  Linnaeus, 1758

European plaice
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Image of Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)
Pleuronectes platessa
Picture by Greenfield, J.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Pleuronectes: Greek, pleura = side, ribe + Greek, nekton = swimmer (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 200 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 50 m (Ref. 35388).   溫帶; 2°C - 15°C (Ref. 5504); 72°N - 36°N, 54°W - 45°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Northern Sea. Reports from the Mediterranean Sea appear to be misidentifications of P. flesus. It may have been present in some areas of the Mediterranean in the past, as a result of climatic changes related to the ice age, but at present times seem to be absent (Ref. 89040).
東北大西洋: 格陵蘭與挪威南至摩洛哥; 在地中海中的西班牙與法國。 也已知來自白海 (參考文獻 4705) 與愛沙尼亞。 (參考文獻 33247)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 30.8, range 24 - 42 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 4705); common length : 40.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 3397); 最大体重: 7.0 kg (Ref. 173); 最大年龄: 50 年 (Ref. 173)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 65-79; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 48 - 59. Smooth with small scales. Bony ridge behind the eyes. Upper side brown or greenish brown with irregularly distributed bright red or orange spots. The underside is white. Lateral line straight, slightly curved above pectoral fin. Dorsal fin reaching eye. More than 30 vertebrae.
平滑的具有小鳞片。 骨脊眼睛后面。 上侧面褐色或绿褐色的有不规则的分布鲜红色或橘色斑点。 下面是白色的。 侧线直线, 些微地在胸鳍上面弯曲了。 背鳍达到眼。 超过 30个脊椎骨。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults live on mixed bottoms, the older the deeper the occurrence; small individuals are usually seen on bathing beaches (Ref. 9988). Occurs on mud and sand bottom from a few meters down to about 100 m, at sea, estuaries and rarely entering freshwaters (Ref. 59043). Reported as resident intertidal species with homing behavior (Ref. 32612). Feed mainly on thin-shelled mollusks and polychaetes. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). The most important flatfish for fisheries in Europe. Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Active at night in the very shallow water while day time is spent buried in the sand. Stationary for long periods, tagging experiments have shown that their spawning migrations can be long. Changes in the environmental conditions have been disadvantageous. Populations in Kattegat and Danish belts decreased in 1980's and early 1990's due to discharge of nutritive salts. Wadden sea is still an excellent nursery ground (Ref.35388).

生活在混合底部,更老那更深地发生。 小的个体通常关于沐浴海滩被见到。 (参考文献 9988) 报告是有归巢的行为的一个定居的潮间带的种。 (参考文献 32612) 主要吃细-有壳的软件动物与多毛类动物。 为在欧洲的渔场最重要的比目鱼。 生鲜使用与冷冻; 清蒸,油炸,煮沸, 微波了而且烧烤了.(参考文献 9988) 活跃的在晚上,在很浅的水域中,然而白天被花费埋藏在砂中。 静止的长时期以来,附以签条实验已经显示他们生殖回游可能是长的。 在环境状况方面的改变曾经不利的。 在 Kattegat 与丹麦的带的族群在 1980 年代与 1990 年代早期中减少了由于有营养盐的放电。 Wadden 海洋仍然是一个优良的育幼场。 (参考文献 35388)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Adult spawn when the temperature is around 6 °C (Ref. 4705).東北大西洋: 格陵蘭與挪威南至摩洛哥; 在地中海中的西班牙與法國。 也已知來自白海 (參考文獻 4705) 與愛沙尼亞。 (參考文獻 33247)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Amaoka, Kunio | 合作者

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的




人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 公众的水族馆
FAO(渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.8 - 12.4, mean 10.2 (based on 658 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00691 - 0.00872), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.06-0.34; tm=2-6; tmax=30; Fec=50,000).
Prior r = 0.39, 2 SD range = 0.2 - 0.77, log(r) = -0.94, SD log(r) = 0.34, Based on: 4 M, 15 K, 42 tgen, 3 tmax, 26 Fec records
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.