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Pleuronectes platessa  Linnaeus, 1758

European plaice
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Image of Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)
Pleuronectes platessa
Picture by Greenfield, J.

رده بندی / Names اسامي عام | مترادف | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

ماهبان شعاع باله > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Pleuronectes: Greek, pleura = side, ribe + Greek, nekton = swimmer (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Linnaeus.

محيط زيست / آب و هوا _ اقليم / Range بوم شناسي

; دريايي; لب شور نزديك كف زي; اقیانوس رو (Ref. 51243); تغييرات عمق 0 - 200 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 50 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 2°C - 15°C (Ref. 5504); 72°N - 36°N, 54°W - 45°E

پراكنش كشورها | مناطق سازمان خوار و بار جهاني (FAO) | Ecosystems | ظهور | Point map | معرفي | Faunafri

Northern Sea. Reports from the Mediterranean Sea appear to be misidentifications of P. flesus. It may have been present in some areas of the Mediterranean in the past, as a result of climatic changes related to the ice age, but at present times seem to be absent (Ref. 89040).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / سن

Maturity: Lm 30.8, range 24 - 42 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 4705); common length : 40.0 cm TL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 3397); بيشينه وزن گزارش شده: 7.0 kg (Ref. 173); بيشينه سن گزارش شده: 50 سال ها (Ref. 173)

توصيف مختصر ريخت شناسي | ريخت ستجي بوسيله انداره گيري

خارهاي باله پشتي (کل): 0; شعاع نرم باله پشتي (کل): 65-79; خارهاي باله مخرجي 0; شعاع نرم باله مخرجي: 48 - 59. Smooth with small scales. Bony ridge behind the eyes. Upper side brown or greenish brown with irregularly distributed bright red or orange spots. The underside is white. Lateral line straight, slightly curved above pectoral fin. Dorsal fin reaching eye. More than 30 vertebrae.

زيست شناسي     واژه نامه (بعنوان مثال epibenthic)

Adults live on mixed bottoms, the older the deeper the occurrence; small individuals are usually seen on bathing beaches (Ref. 9988). Occurs on mud and sand bottom from a few meters down to about 100 m, at sea, estuaries and rarely entering freshwaters (Ref. 59043). Reported as resident intertidal species with homing behavior (Ref. 32612). Feed mainly on thin-shelled mollusks and polychaetes. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). The most important flatfish for fisheries in Europe. Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Active at night in the very shallow water while day time is spent buried in the sand. Stationary for long periods, tagging experiments have shown that their spawning migrations can be long. Changes in the environmental conditions have been disadvantageous. Populations in Kattegat and Danish belts decreased in 1980's and early 1990's due to discharge of nutritive salts. Wadden sea is still an excellent nursery ground (Ref.35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior بلوغ | تولید مثل | تخم ریزی | تخم ها | Fecundity | توزاد ( لارو)

Adult spawn when the temperature is around 6 °C (Ref. 4705).

مآخذ اصلی Upload your references | مراجع | هماهنگ كننده : Amaoka, Kunio | همكاران

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)

وضعيت در فهرست قرمز IUCN (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

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استفاده انسانی

ماهي گيري – شيلات: با ارزش تجاري بالا; آبزي پروري: تجاري; ماهي ها ي سرگرم كننده: بله; آكواريوم: آکواریوم عمومی
FAO(ماهي گيري – شيلات: production, نمايه گونه; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us


گزارش های ويژه

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منابع اينترنتي

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.8 - 12.4, mean 10.2 (based on 658 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00691 - 0.00872), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
جهندگی (Ref. 69278):  متوسط, كمينه زمان لازم براي دو برابر شدن جمعيت 4/1 – 4/4 سال (K=0.06-0.34; tm=2-6; tmax=30; Fec=50,000).
Prior r = 0.39, 2 SD range = 0.2 - 0.77, log(r) = -0.94, SD log(r) = 0.34, Based on: 4 M, 15 K, 42 tgen, 3 tmax, 26 Fec records
آسيب پذيری (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .
طبقه قيمت (Ref. 80766):   Medium.