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Pleuronectes platessa  Linnaeus, 1758

European plaice
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Image of Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)
Pleuronectes platessa
Picture by Greenfield, J.

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ikan bertulan sejati > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Pleuronectes: Greek, pleura = side, ribe + Greek, nekton = swimmer (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Linnaeus.

Lingkungan / Klimat / Range Ekologi

; laut; payau dasar (demersal); oceanodromus (Ref. 51243); kisaran kedalaman 0 - 200 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 50 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 2°C - 15°C (Ref. 5504); 72°N - 36°N, 54°W - 45°E

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Northern Sea. Reports from the Mediterranean Sea appear to be misidentifications of P. flesus. It may have been present in some areas of the Mediterranean in the past, as a result of climatic changes related to the ice age, but at present times seem to be absent (Ref. 89040).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm 30.8, range 24 - 42 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 4705); common length : 40.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 3397); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 7.0 kg (Ref. 173); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 50 Tahun (Ref. 173)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 65-79; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 48 - 59. Smooth with small scales. Bony ridge behind the eyes. Upper side brown or greenish brown with irregularly distributed bright red or orange spots. The underside is white. Lateral line straight, slightly curved above pectoral fin. Dorsal fin reaching eye. More than 30 vertebrae.

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Adults live on mixed bottoms, the older the deeper the occurrence; small individuals are usually seen on bathing beaches (Ref. 9988). Occurs on mud and sand bottom from a few meters down to about 100 m, at sea, estuaries and rarely entering freshwaters (Ref. 59043). Reported as resident intertidal species with homing behavior (Ref. 32612). Feed mainly on thin-shelled mollusks and polychaetes. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). The most important flatfish for fisheries in Europe. Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Active at night in the very shallow water while day time is spent buried in the sand. Stationary for long periods, tagging experiments have shown that their spawning migrations can be long. Changes in the environmental conditions have been disadvantageous. Populations in Kattegat and Danish belts decreased in 1980's and early 1990's due to discharge of nutritive salts. Wadden sea is still an excellent nursery ground (Ref.35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Adult spawn when the temperature is around 6 °C (Ref. 4705).

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator : Amaoka, Kunio | mitra

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Harmless




penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: bernilai komersial tinggi; Budidaya air: komersial; Ikan buruan: ya; Akuarium: Akuarium publik
FAO(Perikanan: production, profail spesis; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

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Sumber internet

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | semak peneliti ikan | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genom, Nukleotida) | GloBI | GOBASE | | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Pangkalan data nasional | OsteoBase(skull, spine) | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Akuarium publik | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(pergi, Cari) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.8 - 12.4, mean 10.2 (based on 658 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00691 - 0.00872), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Daya lenting (Ref. 69278):  sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (K=0.06-0.34; tm=2-6; tmax=30; Fec=50,000).
Prior r = 0.39, 2 SD range = 0.2 - 0.77, log(r) = -0.94, SD log(r) = 0.34, Based on: 4 M, 15 K, 42 tgen, 3 tmax, 26 Fec records
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   Medium.