Mullus surmuletus, Surmullet : fisheries, gamefish

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Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus, 1758

Surmullet
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Mullus surmuletus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Mullus surmuletus (Surmullet)
Mullus surmuletus
Picture by Patzner, R.

Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Strahlenflosser) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Mullidae (Goatfishes)
Etymology: Mullus: Latin, mullus = soft (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ökologie

; seewasser demersal; ozeanodrom (Ref. 51243); tiefenbereich 5 - 409 m (Ref. 56504).   Subtropical; 62°N - 14°N, 19°W - 42°E

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Western Norway, English Channel (rare in North Sea) to Dakar, Senegal and the Canary Islands, including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm 16.1, range 15 - 26 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 3397); common length : 25.0 cm SL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 4845); max. veröff. Gewicht: 1.0 kg (Ref. 35388); max. veröff. Alter: 11 Jahre (Ref. 92286)

Kurzbeschreibung Morphologie | Morphometrie

Head is less steep. Barbels longer than pectoral fin. Body with longitudinal red and brown stripes. First dorsal fin with dark markings (Ref. 35388).

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

Adults occur on broken and rough grounds but also found over sand and soft bottoms at depths less than 100 m. Depth range from 5-60 m (Ref. 07313) and from 305-409 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feed on benthic organisms such as shrimps and amphipods, polychaetes, mollusks, and benthic fishes. Spawning occurs from May to July, eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 4845). Marketed fresh and frozen for steaming, pan-frying, broiling and baking (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geschlechtsreife | Fortpflanzung | Ablaichen | Eier | Fecundity | Larven

A determinate spawner (Ref. 41706).

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator : Randall, John E. | Partner

Ben-Tuvia, A., 1990. Mullidae. p. 827-829. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7313)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 120744)

  nicht bedroht (LC) ; Date assessed: 14 July 2014

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Bedrohung für Menschen

  Harmless





Nutzung durch Menschen

Fischereien: kommerziell; Sportfisch: ja
FAO(Fischereien: production, Artbeschreibung; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7 - 16.1, mean 10.2 (based on 549 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00831 - 0.01001), b=3.10 (3.07 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.1 (2.6 - 5.0) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 37 growth studies.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 120179):  mittel, Verdopplung der Population dauert 1,4 - 4,4 Jahre. (K=0.1-0.7; tm=2; tmax=10).
Prior r = 0.85, 95% CL = 0.56 - 1.28, Based on 12 stock assessments.
Verwundbarkeit (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Preiskategorie (Ref. 80766):   Very high.