Classification / Names
आम नाम | उपशब्द | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; समुद्री; खारा प्रवाल-भित्ति संयुक्त; गहराई सीमा 0 - 53 m (Ref. 13608), usually ? - 4 m (Ref. 55205). Subtropical; 36°N - 4°S, 100°W - 37°W (Ref. 55205)
Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to southern Brazil, including the Antilles (Ref. 3168).
Length at first maturity / आकार / वज़न / Age
Maturity: Lm 85.0, range 75 - 80 cm
Max length : 200 cm WD पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 3168); common length : 90.0 cm WD पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 3168); अधिकतम प्रकाशित वज़न: 135.6 kg (Ref. 40637); अधिकतम सूचित उम्र: 28 वर्षो (Ref. 53968)
Disk has sharp outer corners and irregular row of short spines on upper surface (Ref. 26938). Disk usually uniform dark brown above, grayer in young. Ventral finfold on tail long and high, dorsal finfold absent (Ref. 7251). Upper surface of disc gray, dark or olivaceous brown or olive green. Lower surface of disc white or whitish with an edging of gray or brown (Ref. 6902).
Found on sandy bottoms, seagrass beds, lagoons and the reef face (Ref. 12951). Common in bays and estuaries (Ref. 7251). Observed singly, in pairs and in aggregations (Ref. 12951). Buries in the sand during the day and forages at night, usually in seagrass beds (Ref. 12951). Feeds mainly on bivalves and worms and also takes shrimps, crabs and small fishes (Ref. 3168). Feeds by creating depressions in the sand to expose invertebrates and small fishes (Ref. 9710). Ovoviviparous, with 3-4 in a litter (Ref. 12951). May be found in cleaning stations where they are attended to by the bluehead wrasse and Spanish hogfish (Ref. 12951). Equipped with a well-developed serrated spine and capable of inflicting a painful laceration. Easily approached by divers (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
परिपक्व अवधि | पुनरुत्पत्ति | मछलीऔ का अंडे देना | अंडे | Fecundity | लार्वा
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Male mounts on female dorsally (Ref. 12951).
Last, P.R., W.T. White, M.R. de Carvalho, B. Séret, M.F.W. Stehmann and G.J.P. Naylor, 2016. Rays of the world. CSIRO Publishing, Comstock Publishing Associates. i-ix + 1-790. (Ref. 114953)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)
मात्स्यिकी: व्यापारिक; आखेट मत्स्य: हां
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.7 - 28.1, mean 27.3 (based on 795 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
लौटाव (Ref. 120179
): निम्न, न्यूनतम जनसंख्या दुगनी होने का समय 4.5 - 14 वर्ष। (tmax=28; Fec=3-4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) .