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Mugil curema  Valenciennes, 1836

White mullet
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Mugil curema   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Mugil curema
Picture by Randall, J.E.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Mugiliformes (Mullets) > Mugilidae (Mullets)
Etymology: Mugil: Latin, mugil, -ilis = grey mullet (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水 礁区鱼类; 降海洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 300 m, usually 0 - 20 m.   亞熱帶的; 43°N - 34°S, 114°W - 16°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, but uncommon north of Cape Cod (Harrison, pers. Comm.) to Argentina (Ref. 74796). Eastern Atlantic: Senegal River outlet (Ref. 57400) southwards up to Namibia (Ref. 81659). Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Chile (Ref. 9321, 81659).
西大西洋: 新斯科舍省, 但是科德角稀有北方 (Harrison , pers. comm.), 百慕達群島 , 與墨西哥灣北部到巴西南部.(參考文獻 7251) 東大西洋: 塞內加爾到那米比亞 (Harrison , pers. comm.)。 東太平洋: 加州灣到智利;(參考文獻 9321) 從聖地牙哥,美國加州記錄。 (參考文獻 3814)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 19.7, range 21 - ? cm
Max length : 91.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 81659); common length : 30.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 9321); 最大体重: 680.00 g (Ref. 40637)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 4 - 5; 背的软条 (总数): 8-9; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 9 - 10. Diagnosis: body stout, rounded in cross-section; head broad; inter-orbital space flat; a well developed adipose eyelid covering most of pupil (Ref. 57400). Upper lip simple, thicker and deeper than in most Mugil species, armed with 2-3 rows (Ref. 57400), teeth in outer row curved, monocuspid (Ref. 57400, 81659) and moderately close-set (Ref. 81659) or widely spaced (Ref. 57400), inner row of less closely set, smaller teeth may be present just posterior to outer row (Ref. 81659). Lower lip with single row of unicuspid teeth, usually smaller than teeth in outer row on upper lip (Ref. 81659). A vertical line from hind end of upper jaw positioned midway between posterior nostril and anterior eye margin; maxillary pad not visible below corner of mouth when closed; origin of 1st dorsal fin equidistant from snout tip and caudal-fin base; pectoral axillary process well developed (30-37% of pectoral-fin length)(Ref. 57400). (Second) dorsal and anal fins entirely (and more or less densely) covered with scales (Ref. 57400, 81659). Anal fin usually III-9 (rarely III-10) in adults (usually II-10 in juveniles <30 mm SL), first spine very short and usually hidden by overlying scales (Ref. 81659). 11-13 scale rows between origins of first dorsal and pelvic fins (Ref. 57400, 81659).
通常在侧线列中的 38 或 39个鳞片。 在侧边上的鳞片覆盖着比较小的第二鳞片了。 (参考文献 26938)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabit sandy coasts and littoral pools but also occurs in muddy bottoms of brackish lagoons and estuaries. Sometimes penetrate rivers. May also be found on coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Juveniles are common in coastal waters and are known to find their way to estuaries and coastal lagoons. Growth in juveniles is moderate (30-40 cm in 4 years). Adults form schools (Ref. 9321). Feed on microscopic or filamentous algae and small juveniles of planktonic organisms (Ref. 9626). Reproduction occurs between March and August. Spawn several million eggs provided with a notable yolk (Ref. 35237). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Maximul size 910 mm TL for western Central Atlantic specimens, eastern Central Atlantic specimens may reach 350 mm TL and commonly reach 250 mm TL (Ref. 81659). An important foodfish, it is marketed fresh and salted (Ref. 9321).

栖息于沙的海岸与海滨的水池也出现于半咸淡泻湖与河口的泥底部中。 有时深入河。 可能也被发现于珊瑚礁之上.(参考文献 9710) 稚鱼常见于沿岸水域而且被知道发现他们到河口与岸边泻湖的路。 在稚鱼的成长是中等的。 (30-40 公分在 4 年中) 成鱼形成鱼群。 (参考文献 9321) 吃微小的或菌丝藻与浮游性生物的小稚鱼.(参考文献 9626) 在三月与八月之间繁殖。 产卵被具有一个显着的卵黄的数百万卵。 (参考文献 35237) 一个重要的食用鱼, 它是生鲜销售与盐腌的.(参考文献 9321)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

西大西洋: 新斯科舍省, 但是科德角稀有北方 (Harrison , pers. comm.), 百慕達群島 , 與墨西哥灣北部到巴西南部.(參考文獻 7251) 東大西洋: 塞內加爾到那米比亞 (Harrison , pers. comm.)。 東太平洋: 加州灣到智利;(參考文獻 9321) 從聖地牙哥,美國加州記錄。 (參考文獻 3814)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Harrison, Ian | 合作者

Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的




人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 商业性; 诱饵: occasionally
FAO(渔业: 产生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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参考文献
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养殖信息
品种
遗传学
基因序列
遗传率
疾病
加工
Mass conversion
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Stamps, Coins Misc.
声音
神经毒
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Otoliths
脑重体重比
眼睛色素

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 21 - 28, mean 26.1 (based on 798 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00939 - 0.01340), b=2.96 (2.92 - 3.00), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=2-3; Fec=>50,000).
Prior r = 0.45, 2 SD range = 0.23 - 0.89, log(r) = -0.8, SD log(r) = 0.34, Based on: 1 K, 6 tgen, 4 Fec records
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.