Sphyrna tiburo  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Bonnethead
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Sphyrna tiburo   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sphyrna tiburo (Bonnethead)
Sphyrna tiburo
Picture by Murch, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Greek, sphyra = hammer (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 80 m (Ref. 244), usually 10 - 25 m (Ref. 9253).   Subtropical; 45°N - 36°S, 121°W - 32°W (Ref. 55302)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 80 - 90 cm
Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 10.8 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 26248)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Front of head semicircular in outline. No other hammerhead has front of head in semicircle. (Ref. 26938).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to southern Brazil, including Cuba and the Bahamas. Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico; rare in Bermuda (Ref. 26938). Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to Ecuador.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on the continental and insular shelves, on inshore and coastal areas, over mud and sand bottoms, also on coral reefs. Often occur in shallow water including estuaries, shallow bays and over coral reefs (Ref. 9987). Feed mainly on crustaceans, also on bivalves, octopi, and small fish. Viviparous, with 6 to 9 young per litter. Size at birth about 35 to 40 cm. Not territorial. Always occurs in small groups. Considerable sexual segregation occurs. Shows diel rhythm of activity. Utilized for human consumption and processed for fishmeal.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449), with 6 to 9 young per litter. Size at birth about 35 to 40 cm.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00186 (0.00099 - 0.00350), b=3.16 (2.99 - 3.33), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.17-0.34; tm=3; tmax=12; Fec=3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.