Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Ephippidae
(Spadefishes, batfishes and scats)
Etymology: Parapsettus: Greek, para = the side of + Greek psetta = grouper (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated. Tropical; 37°N -
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9299); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru.
Demersal over coral reefs and rocky bottoms of shallow waters (Ref. 9299). Feeds on invertebrates (Ref. 9299). Maximum TL of at least 30 cm (Ref. 9299).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Thomson, D.A., 1987. Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez. The rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 302 p. (Ref. 5592)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02188 (0.00887 - 0.05395), b=2.96 (2.75 - 3.17), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .