Aetomylaeus bovinus  (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817)

Bull ray
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Aetomylaeus bovinus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Myliobatidae (Eagle and manta rays) > Myliobatinae
Etymology: Aetomylaeus: Greek, aetos = eagle + Greek, mylio = mill, grinder (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 10 - 150 m (Ref. 6808).   Subtropical; 44°N - 35°S, 19°W - 36°E

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 90.0, range 35 - 148 cm
Max length : 222.0 cm WD (female); common length : 150 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 57025); max. published weight: 116.0 kg (Ref. 85836)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Long, flat, rounded snout like a duck's bill; head thick and pectoral disc with sharply curved, angular corners; upper or lower jaw; usually with 7 rows of flat teeth (Ref. 5578). Light brown with several pale blue-grey stripes (may be absent) dorsally, white ventrally (Ref. 5578).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Portugal and Morocco to Angola, including the Mediterranean, Madeira and the Canary Islands; then from Saldanha Bay to Natal (South Africa) and southern Mozambique (Ref. 5578).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in coastal tropical and warm temperate waters, occasionally offshore. Sometimes found in small groups (Ref. 5578). Feed on bottom-living crustaceans and mollusks. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449), aplacental (Ref. 57025). Prized angling fish, often released (Ref. 5578). Flesh highly esteemed (Ref. 3965).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Gestation about 6 months; 3-7 young produced (Ref. 5578). Size at birth 45 cm WD (Ref. 6677).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

White, W.T., 2014. A revised generic arrangement for the eagle ray family Myliobatidae, with definitions for the valid genera. Zootaxa 3860(2):149-166. (Ref. 97392)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.57 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (56 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.