Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Caranx: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 188 m (Ref. 58302). Tropical; 26°C - 29°C, preferred 27°C (Ref. 107945); 35°N - 37°S, 19°E - 129°W
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 60.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 170 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5213); max. published weight: 80.0 kg (Ref. 4795)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and east coast of Africa to the Hawaiian and Marquesan islands, north to southern Japan (Ref. 559) and the Ogasawara Islands, south to northern Australia. Hybrid with Caranx melampygus found in Hawaii (Ref. 58422).
Pelagic over sand and rock (Ref. 58302). Adults occur singly and inhabit clear lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). They feed on crustaceans (like crabs and spiny lobsters) and fishes at night (Ref. 4887). Large individuals may be ciguatoxic. The largest trevally, reaching 1.7 m in length and a weight of over 60 kg (Ref. 48635). Spawning occurs on shallow seaward reefs and offshore banks (Ref. 37816). Juveniles are found in estuaries. Sold mostly fresh and dried salted.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 9710)
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01862 (0.01582 - 0.02192), b=2.95 (2.92 - 2.98), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.08-0.11; tm=3.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (82 of 100) .