Family Achiridae - American soles
  Order
:
  Class
:
Actinopterygii
No. in FishBase
:
Genera : 9 | Species : 35 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
  Environment
:
Fresh : Yes | Brackish : Yes | Marine : Yes
  Division
:
Peripheral/diadromous
  Aquarium
:
none
  First Fossil Record
:
lower   Tertiary   lower   Eocene
Ref..   Berg, L.S. 1958
  Remark
:
The Achiridae are saltwater and freshwater flatfishes with the eyes on the right side, body rounded or ovate in lateral view in most species, including fins, and elongate in Achiropsis nattereri, Apionichthys dumerili, and one undescribed species referred to Apionichthys. The eyed-side lower lip has a conspicuous, variously fringed fleshy rim which distinguish the species of this family from other sympatrical flatfishes. The lower lip is internally strengthened by a cartilaginous piece positioned laterally to dentary, the upper free half above the dentary dorsal margin; this cartilaginous piece, which is visible only by dissection or in cleared and stained preparations, is also present in other flatfish families, but clearly less developed than in achirids. The posterior nare forming a wide longitudinal slit above posterior end of upper lip, and hidden by lower lip when mouth is closed, is also a diagnostic external feature for achirids. A similar feature also appear in Soleidae, but it is never covered by lower lip; soleids do not occur in the Neotropics. The anterior nare is tubular as in some other flatfishes families. Margin of preopercle evidenced by a narrow naked area, particularly on its angle; this area is very narrow in adults and concealed by scales in juveniles of Soleonasus. Teeth villiform, organized in a patch and present on jaws only in the blind side, except for Hypoclinemus mentalis, which possesses teeth on jaws of both eyed and blind sides. Dorsal fin extends forward onto cranium up to anterior end of upper jaw, which is often covered by a fringed dermal flap projected from anterior end of this fin. In Achiropsis, Apionichthys, Pnictes, and Soleonasus the anterior end of dorsal fin and its corresponding supracranial area extend beyond and conceal anterior margin of mouth. Eyed-side pelvic fin united to anal fin by membrane; both pelvic fins enclosed in a single dermal envelope in Gymnachirus and Soleonasus, also united to anal fin by membrane; pelvic fins extend forward in Achiropsis, Apionichthys, Pnictes, and Soleonasus, the first pelvic-fin ray inserted just below ventral end of mandibular symphysis. Dorsal and anal fins free from caudal fin in most species, or united to caudal fin by a narrow membrane in Achiropsis, Apionichthys, and Pnictes. Pectoral fins often minute, present in one or both sides, or absent. Lateral line frequently ornamented with dermal processes or ramified tubes, particularly on head. Scales ctenoid, those of head external margin larger than the others on body, and a little turned to its center; scales are absent in Gymnachirus, except for remains of lateral line tubes on head and body. Medium size achirid species are 15 centimeters long, the largest species occurring in freshwater. They are carnivores, eating fishes and benthic invertebrates. Fully developed gonads were examined in specimens 2.5 centimeters SL, from a species which grow up to 12 centimeters. Common names of these fishes are American Sole (English), Lenguado (Spanish), Linguado (a general Portuguese word for Pleuronectiformes). In several Brazilian regions they are also known as Solha, Sôia, Sóia, Tapa or Aramaçá. Presently, nine genera and 28 species are recognized (Nelson, 1994). No recent revisional work is available. Chabanaud (1928) published a review of achirids, but it is not a comprehensive work. The achirid genera are presently being reviewed by the author, and synonymization of some genera and species will be proposed. Also, some species restricted to freshwater and referred to Apionchthys, and marine species referred to Trinectes and Achirus will be described. The assemblage that composes the family Achiridae was traditionally treated as part of the Soleidae, in subfamilial ranking. Jordan (1923) proposed familial ranking to that assemblage. This view was subsequently supported by Chabanaud in several papers (e.g. 1935, 1939), but not by Greenwood et al. (1966). Recently, Chapleau and Keast (1984) proposed the monophyly of the achirids based on five osteological cranial characters, but rejected the traditional view of a monophyletic Soleidae (Soleinae + Achirinae), previously supported by other authors. A cladistic study of intergeneric relationships, also in progress by the present author, detected eight new exclusive characters to support the monophyly proposed by Chapleau and Keast (1984) for the achirids. Achirids are mainly shore fishes restricted to both sides of Americas, including the subtropical, southern portion of Neartic region, and all the Neotropics, except for its extreme south. The genera Achiropsis, Apionichthys, Pnictes, and Soleonasus are restricted to freshwater in northern South American rivers, except for Apionichthys dumerili, which occurs in estuarine areas of the Orinoco, Corantjin, Oiapoque, Amazonas and Grajaú basins, also entering low lands freshwaters as do some other marine achirid species, and in marine areas under the influence of those rivers. Two species of Catathyridium are restricted to the Paraguay-Paraná, and Uruguay systems, and one species (C. garmani) occurs in estuarine and marine coastal areas of Southeastern Brazil, including Lagoa dos Patos, and coastal areas of Northern Uruguay. Some marine species of the genera Achirus and Trinectes occasionally enters freshwaters.
  Etymology
:
Greek, acheir, -eiros = without hands ( Ref. 45335).
  Reproductive guild
:
nonguarders
  Typical activity level
:
normal
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:
  Deep Fin Classification
:
Osteichthyes | Actinopterygii | Actinopteri | Neopterygii | Teleostei | Osteoglossocephalai | Clupeocephala | Euteleosteomorpha | Neoteleostei | Eurypterygia | Ctenosquamata | Acanthomorphata | Euacanthomorphacea | Percomorphaceae | Carangimorpharia | Pleuronectiformes | Pleuronectoidei | Achiridae

Show species images | Show valid names | Nominal species list | Identification keys | CAS specimen photos | References

 
Ref.
[ e.g. 9948]
Glossary
[ e.g. cephalopods]


Species/Synonymy list for the family Achiridae as currently in FishBase

Important recommendation:

The list below must not be used as an authority reference synonymy list like those found in scientific published revisions, which must be the source to be used and cited eventually when they exist.

Rather, it reflects the current content of FishBase, and the progress with respect to synchronization with the Catalog of Fishes. However, we think it can be useful for users to assess the quality of information in FishBase, to start new work on the family, or to cross-check with other lists.

But we appreciate to be cited in publications when this list has been of any working value. In particular, for published scientific, we suggest then to cite it in the Material and Method section as a useful tool to conduct the research, but again, not as a taxonomic or nomenclatural authority reference.

Unless it is explicitly precised, the list is not complete, please search all original names published for the family in the Catalog of Fishes (genera, species), including those with uncertain or unknown status, that are not included in FishBase when they are not attached to a valid species.

This list uses some data from Catalog of Fishes (not shown but used to sort names).

In the column CofF, the digit indicates the status of synchronization with CofF: 0: Not checked; 1: Same status;   2: Different status;   3: Other combination;   4: Synonym in CofF;   5: Species/Subspecies issue;   6: Synonym of another species in CofF;   7: Not in CofF;   8: Should not be in CofF. The CofF version currently used is the one published on 15-11-2013 (Ref. 94485).

The list ordered as follows:

Please send comments and corrections if you detect errors or missing names.

Show all | Show only accepted name | Show only accepted and original names
Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination CofF
Achirus achirus (Linnaeus, 1758)
acceptedseniornew
Pleuronectes achirus Linnaeus, 1758
synonymseniororiginal1
Monochirus lineatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1824
synonymjuniororiginal2
Monochir punctifer Castelnau, 1855
synonymjuniororiginal1
synonymjuniororiginal1
Achirus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
acceptedseniornew
Pleuronectes lineatus Linnaeus, 1758
synonymseniororiginal1
Pleuronectes nigricans Bloch & Schneider, 1801
synonymjuniororiginal1
Achirus scutum (Günther, 1862)
acceptedseniornew
Solea scutum Günther, 1862
synonymseniororiginal1
Achirus mazatlanus (Steindachner, 1869)
acceptedseniornew
Solea mazatlana Steindachner, 1869
synonymseniororiginal1
Achirus klunzingeri (Steindachner, 1880)
acceptedseniornew
Solea klunzingeri Steindachner, 1880
synonymseniororiginal1
Achirus zebrinus Clark, 1936
acceptedseniororiginal1
Trinectes zebrinus (Clark, 1936)
synonymseniornew
Achirus declivis Chabanaud, 1940
acceptedseniorchange in rank
Achirus achirus declivis Chabanaud, 1940
synonymseniororiginal1
Achirus novoae Cervigón, 1982
acceptedseniororiginal1
Achirus mucuri Ramos, Ramos & Lopes, 2009
acceptedseniororiginal1
Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
acceptedseniornew
Pleuronectes maculatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801
synonymseniororiginal1
Achirus fasciatus Lacepède, 1802
synonymjuniororiginal1
Trinectes fasciatus (Lacepède, 1802)
synonymjuniornew
Pleuronectes mollis Mitchill, 1814
synonymjuniororiginal1
Trinectes scabra Rafinesque, 1832
synonymjuniororiginal1
Trinectes inscriptus (Gosse, 1851)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal1
Trinectes fimbriatus (Günther, 1862)
acceptedseniornew
Solea fimbriata Günther, 1862
synonymseniororiginal1
Trinectes fonsecensis (Günther, 1862)
acceptedseniornew
Solea fonsecensis Günther, 1862
synonymseniororiginal1
Solea panamensis Steindachner, 1876
synonymjuniororiginal2
Trinectes paulistanus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1915)
acceptedseniornew
Achirus paulistanus Miranda Ribeiro, 1915
synonymseniororiginal1
Achirus affinis Steindachner, 1915
synonymjuniororiginal1
Achirus austrinus Chabanaud, 1928
synonymjuniororiginal1
Trinectes fluviatilis (Meek & Hildebrand, 1928)
acceptedseniornew
Achirus fluviatilis Meek & Hildebrand, 1928
synonymseniororiginal1
Trinectes microphthalmus (Chabanaud, 1928)
acceptedseniornew
Achirus microphthalmus Chabanaud, 1928
synonymseniororiginal1
Trinectes opercularis (Nichols & Murphy, 1944)
acceptedseniornew
Achirus opercularis Nichols & Murphy, 1944
synonymseniororiginal1
Trinectes xanthurus Walker & Bollinger, 2001
acceptedseniororiginal1
Trinectes hubbsbollinger Duplain, Chapleau & Munroe, 2012
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal1
Soleotalpa unicolor Günther, 1862
synonymjuniororiginal1
Apionichthys unicolor (Günther, 1862)
synonymjuniornew
Apionichthys ottonis Steindachner, 1868
synonymjuniororiginal1
synonymjuniororiginal1
synonymjuniororiginal1
Apionichthys nattereri (Steindachner, 1876)
acceptedseniornew
Solea nattereri Steindachner, 1876
synonymseniororiginal2
Achiropsis nattereri (Steindachner, 1876)
synonymseniornew
Achiropsis normani Chabanaud, 1928
synonymjuniororiginal2
Apionichthys finis (Eigenmann, 1912)
acceptedseniornew
Soleonasus finis Eigenmann, 1912
synonymseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal1
Apionichthys rosai Ramos, 2003
acceptedseniororiginal1
Apionichthys sauli Ramos, 2003
acceptedseniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal1
! Gynmachirus nudus Kaup, 1858
synonymseniororiginal
Gymnachirus melas Nichols, 1916
acceptedseniororiginal1
Gymnachirus texae (Gunter, 1936)
acceptedseniornew
Nodogymnus texae Gunter, 1936
synonymseniororiginal1
Pnictes asphyxiatus (Jordan, 1889)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
synonymseniornew
Catathyridium jenynsii (Günther, 1862)
acceptedseniornew
Solea jenynsii Günther, 1862
synonymseniororiginal1
Achirus jenynsii (Günther, 1862)
synonymseniornew
! Achirus jenynsi (Günther, 1862)
synonymseniornew
synonymjuniororiginal1
Achirus errans Miranda Ribeiro, 1915
synonymjuniororiginal1
Catathyridium lorentzii (Weyenbergh, 1877)
acceptedseniornew
Achirus lorentzii Weyenbergh, 1877
synonymseniororiginal1
synonymjuniororiginal1
Catathyridium garmani (Jordan, 1889)
acceptedseniornew
Achirus garmani Jordan, 1889
synonymseniororiginal1
Catathyridium grandirivi (Chabanaud, 1928)
acceptedseniornew
Baeostoma grandirivi Chabanaud, 1928
synonymseniororiginal1
Hypoclinemus mentalis (Günther, 1862)
acceptedseniornew
Solea mentalis Günther, 1862
synonymseniororiginal1
Achirus hasemani Steindachner, 1915
synonymjuniororiginal1
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