Family Paralichthyidae - Large-tooth flounders
  Order
:
  Class
:
Actinopterygii
No. in FishBase
:
Genera : 14 | Species : 111 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
  Environment
:
Fresh : Yes | Brackish : Yes | Marine : Yes
  Division
:
Marine
  Aquarium
:
none
  First Fossil Record
:
upper   Tertiary     Miocene
Ref..   Berg, L.S. 1958
  Remark
:
Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; marine, rarely in freshwater. Eyes on the left side. No spines in pectoral and pelvic fins; pelvic fin bases short and nearly symmetrical. Eggs with a single oil globule in the yolk. Placement of Tephrinectes and Thysanopsetta into this family is only provisional.
  Etymology
:
Greek, paralia, -as = seaside, coast + Greek, ichthys = fish ( Ref. 45335).
  Reproductive guild
:
nonguarders
  Typical activity level
:
normal
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:
  Deep Fin Classification
:
Osteichthyes | Actinopterygii | Actinopteri | Neopterygii | Teleostei | Osteoglossocephalai | Clupeocephala | Euteleosteomorpha | Neoteleostei | Eurypterygia | Ctenosquamata | Acanthomorphata | Acanthopterygii | Percomorphaceae | Carangaria | | | Pleuronectiformes | Pleuronectoidei | | Paralichthyidae

Show species images | Show valid names | Nominal species list | Identification keys | CAS specimen photos | References

 
Ref.
[ e.g. 9948]
Glossary
[ e.g. cephalopods]


Species/Synonymy list for the family Paralichthyidae as currently in FishBase

Important recommendation:

The list below must not be used as an authority reference synonymy list like those found in scientific published revisions, which must be the source to be used and cited eventually when they exist.

Rather, it reflects the current content of FishBase, and the progress with respect to synchronization with the Catalog of Fishes. However, we think it can be useful for users to assess the quality of information in FishBase, to start new work on the family, or to cross-check with other lists.

But we appreciate to be cited in publications when this list has been of any working value. In particular, for published scientific, we suggest then to cite it in the Material and Method section as a useful tool to conduct the research, but again, not as a taxonomic or nomenclatural authority reference.

Unless it is explicitly precised, the list is not complete, please search all original names published for the family in the Catalog of Fishes (genera, species), including those with uncertain or unknown status, that are not included in FishBase when they are not attached to a valid species.

This list uses some data from Catalog of Fishes (not shown but used to sort names).

In the column CofF, the digit indicates the status of synchronization with CofF: 0: Not checked; 1: Same status;   2: Different status;   3: Other combination;   4: Synonym in CofF;   5: Species/Subspecies issue;   6: Synonym of another species in CofF;   7: Not in CofF;   8: Should not be in CofF. The CofF version currently used is the one published on 23-07-2014 (Ref. 97102).

The list ordered as follows:

Please send comments and corrections if you detect errors or missing names.

Show all | Show only accepted name | Show only accepted and original names
Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination CofF
Paralichthys dentatus (Linnaeus, 1766)
acceptedseniornew
Pleuronectes dentatus Linnaeus, 1766
synonymseniororiginal2
Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1839)
acceptedseniornew
Platessa orbignyana Valenciennes, 1839
synonymseniororiginal2
! Paralichthys orbignyana (Valenciennes, 1839)
synonymseniornew
! Pleuronectes orbignyana (Valenciennes, 1842)
synonymseniornew
Xystreurys ribeiroi Fowler & Bean, 1923
synonymjuniororiginal2
Paralichthys simulans Lahille, 1939
synonymjuniororiginal2
ambiguousotheroriginal1
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
Rhombus aramaca Castelnau, 1855
synonymjuniororiginal2
Pseudorhombus vorax Günther, 1862
ambiguousquestionableoriginal2
Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846)
acceptedseniornew
Hippoglossus olivaceus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
synonymseniororiginal2
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867)
acceptedseniornew
Pseudorhombus adspersus Steindachner, 1867
synonymseniororiginal2
Hippoglossus kingii Jenyns, 1842
ambiguousquestionableoriginal2
Paralichthys microps (Günther, 1881)
acceptedseniornew
Hippoglossina microps Günther, 1881
synonymseniororiginal2
Paralichthys albigutta Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
acceptedseniororiginal2
Paralichthys squamilentus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
acceptedseniororiginal2
Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan & Gilbert, 1884
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Paralichthys letostigma Jordan & Gilbert, 1884
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal2
Paralichthys bicyclophorus Miranda Ribeiro, 1915
synonymjuniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
Paralichthys woolmani Jordan & Williams, 1897
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Paralichthys woolmanni Jordan & Williams, 1897
synonymseniororiginal
Paralichthys sinaloae Jordan & Abbott, 1898
synonymjuniororiginal2
Paralichthys aestuarius Gilbert & Scofield, 1898
acceptedseniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Paralichthys fernandezianus Steindachner, 1903
acceptedseniororiginal2
Paralichthys hilgendorfii Steindachner, 1903
synonymjuniororiginal2
! Paralichthys hilgendorfi Steindachner, 1903
synonymjuniororiginal
Paralichthys schmitti Ginsburg, 1933
synonymjuniororiginal2
Paralichthys triocellatus Miranda Ribeiro, 1903
acceptedseniororiginal2
Paralichthys tropicus Ginsburg, 1933
acceptedseniororiginal2
Paralichthys delfini Pequeño & Plaza, 1987
acceptedseniororiginal2
Syacium micrurum Ranzani, 1842
acceptedseniororiginal2
Hemirhombus micrurus (Ranzani, 1842)
synonymseniornew
! Scyacium micrurum Ranzani, 1842
synonymseniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniornew
synonymjuniornew
Hemirhombus aramaca Günther, 1862
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Hemirhombus aethalion (Jordan, 1886)
synonymjuniornew
Syacium ovale (non Günther, 1864)
misappliedmisappliednew
Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus, 1758)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
Aramaca papillosa (Linnaeus, 1758)
synonymseniornew
Pleuronectes aramaca Walbaum, 1792
synonymjuniororiginal2
Citharichthys aramaca (Walbaum, 1792)
synonymjuniornew
Rhombus soleaeformis Agassiz, 1831
synonymjuniororiginal2
Aramaca soleaeformis (Agassiz, 1831)
synonymjuniornew
Hemirhombus soleaeformis (Agassiz, 1831)
synonymjuniornew
synonymjuniororiginal2
Hemirhombus paetulus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
synonymjuniororiginal2
Citharichthys paetulus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882)
synonymjuniornew
Syacium micrurum (non Ranzani, 1842)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Syacium guineensis (non Bleeker, 1862)
misappliedmisappliednew
Syacium guineensis (Bleeker, 1862)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
! Syacium guineenis (Bleeker, 1862)
synonymseniornew
Scyacium micrurum (non Ranzani, 1842)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Syacium micrurum (non Ranzani, 1842)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Hemirhombus aramaca (non Günther, 1862)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Syacium ovale (non Günther, 1864)
misappliedmisappliednew
Syacium ovale (Günther, 1864)
acceptedseniornew
Hemirhombus ovalis Günther, 1864
synonymseniororiginal2
Citharichthys ovalis (Günther, 1864)
synonymseniornew
Syacium latifrons (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882)
acceptedseniornew
Citharichthys latifrons Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
synonymseniororiginal2
Syacium maculiferum (Garman, 1899)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
Cyclopsetta maculifera (Garman, 1899)
synonymseniornew
Syacium gunteri Ginsburg, 1933
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Scyacium gunteri Ginsburg, 1933
synonymseniororiginal
Syacium longleyi Norman, 1933
synonymjuniororiginal2
! Syacium longreyi Norman, 1933
synonymjuniororiginal
Syacium longidorsale Murakami & Amaoka, 1992
acceptedseniororiginal2
Citharichthys surinamensis (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
acceptedseniornew
Pleuronectes surinamensis Bloch & Schneider, 1801
synonymseniororiginal2
Citharichthys sordidus (Girard, 1854)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Citarichthys spilopterus Günther, 1862
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal2
Citharichthys cornutus (Günther, 1880)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
Citharichthys stigmaeus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Cithanichthys stigmaeus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal2
Citharichthys dinoceros Goode & Bean, 1886
acceptedseniororiginal2
Citharichthys gilberti Jenkins & Evermann, 1889
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
Citharichthys stampflii (Steindachner, 1894)
acceptedseniornew
Arnoglossus sp. Not applicable
synonymotherother
Hemirhombus stampflii Steindachner, 1894
synonymseniororiginal2
Hemirhombus stampflii (Steindachner, 1894)
synonymseniornew
Syacium stamplii (Steindachner, 1894)
synonymseniornew
! Citarichthys stamfli (Steindachner, 1894)
synonymseniornew
Citharichthys arenaceus Evermann & Marsh, 1900
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Citharichtthys arenaceus Evermann & Marsh, 1900
synonymseniororiginal
Citharichthys gordae Beebe & Tee-Van, 1938
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
Citharichthys amblybregmatus Gutherz & Blackman, 1970
acceptedseniororiginal2
Citharichthys gymnorhinus Gutherz & Blackman, 1970
acceptedseniororiginal2
Citharichthys minutus Cervigón, 1982
acceptedseniororiginal2
Citharichthys valdezi Cervigón, 1986
acceptedseniororiginal2
Citharichthys mariajorisae van der Heiden & Mussot-Pérez, 1995
acceptedseniororiginal2
Citharichthys gnathus Hoshino & Amaoka, 1999
acceptedseniororiginal2
Citharichthys darwini Victor & Wellington, 2013
acceptedseniororiginal2
Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton, 1822)
acceptedseniornew
Pleuronectes arsius Hamilton, 1822
synonymseniororiginal2
! Pseudorhombus arius (Hamilton, 1822)
synonymseniornew
Rhombus lentiginosus Richardson, 1843
synonymjuniororiginal2
Rhombus polyspilos Bleeker, 1853
synonymjuniororiginal2
Pseudorhombus polyspilos (Bleeker, 1853)
synonymjuniornew
! Pseudorhombus polyspilus (Bleeker, 1853)
synonymjuniornew
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymotheroriginal2
! Neorhombus ocellatus De Vis, 1886
synonymotheroriginal
Pseudorhombus andersoni Gilchrist, 1904
synonymjuniororiginal2
Pseudorhombus oligodon (non Bleeker, 1854)
misappliedmisappliednew
Pseudorhombus triocellatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
acceptedseniornew
Pleuronectes triocellatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801
synonymseniororiginal2
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
synonymseniornew
! Pseudorhombus russelli (Gray, 1834)
synonymjuniornew
Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846)
acceptedseniornew
Rhombus cinnamoneus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
synonymseniororiginal2
! Pseudorhombus cinnamomeus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846)
synonymseniornew
Pseudorhombus neglectus (non Bleeker, 1865)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Pseudorhombus levisquamis (non Oshima, 1927)
misappliedmisappliednew
Pseudorhombus javanicus (Bleeker, 1853)
acceptedseniornew
Rhombus javanicus Bleeker, 1853
synonymseniororiginal2
Platophrys javanicus (Bleeker, 1853)
synonymseniornew
! Pseudorhambus javanicus (Bleeker, 1853)
synonymseniornew
Pseudorhombus oligodon (Bleeker, 1854)
acceptedseniornew
Rhombus oligodon Bleeker, 1854
synonymseniororiginal2
Pseudorhombus arsius (non Hamilton, 1822)
misappliedmisappliednew
Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus (non Temminck & Schlegel, 1846)
misappliedmisappliednew
Pseudorhombus jenynsii (Bleeker, 1855)
acceptedseniornew
Platessa jenynsii Bleeker, 1855
synonymseniororiginal2
! Pseudothombus jenynsii (Bleeker, 1855)
synonymseniornew
Pseudorhombus argus (non Weber, 1913)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
acceptedseniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
Pseudorhombus oligodon (non Bleeker, 1854)
misappliedmisappliednew
acceptedseniororiginal2
Platophrys neglectus (Bleeker, 1865)
synonymseniornew
Pseudorhombus jenynsii (non Bleeker, 1855)
misappliedmisappliednew
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
synonymseniornew
Pseudorhombus natalensis Gilchrist, 1904
acceptedseniororiginal2
Pseudorhombus arsius (non Hamilton, 1822)
misappliedmisappliednew
Pseudorhombus russelli (non Gray, 1834)
misappliedmisappliednew
acceptedseniororiginal2
synonymseniororiginal
Platophrys palad Evermann & Seale, 1907
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Pseudorhombus elevates Ogilby, 1912
synonymseniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal2
Pseudorhombus arsius (non Hamilton, 1822)
misappliedmisappliednew
acceptedseniororiginal2
Pseudorhombus jenynsii (non Bleeker, 1855)
misappliedmisappliednew
Pseudorhombus spinosus McCulloch, 1914
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
Pseudorhombus quinquocellatus Weber & de Beaufort, 1929
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
Pseudorhombus sp. 1 Not applicable
synonymotherother
Pseudorhombus malayanus (non Bleeker, 1865)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Cephalopsetta ventrocellata (non Dutt & Rao, 1965)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Pseudorhombus binii Tortonese, 1955
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
Tephrinectes sinensis (Lacepède, 1802)
acceptedseniornew
Pleuronectes sinensis Lacepède, 1802
synonymseniororiginal2
Paralichthys sinensis (Lacepède, 1802)
synonymseniornew
Ancylopsetta ommata (Jordan & Gilbert, 1883)
acceptedseniornew
Paralichthys ommatus Jordan & Gilbert, 1883
synonymseniororiginal2
ambiguoushomonymoriginal2
ambiguoushomonymoriginal
Ancylopsetta dilecta (Goode & Bean, 1883)
acceptedseniornew
Notosema dilecta Goode & Bean, 1883
synonymseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
Pseudorhombus dendritica (Gilbert, 1890)
synonymseniornew
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
Hippoglossina macrops Steindachner, 1876
acceptedseniororiginal2
Hippoglossina oblonga (Mitchill, 1815)
acceptedseniornew
Pleuronectes oblongus Mitchill, 1815
synonymseniororiginal3
Paralichthys oblongus (Mitchill, 1815)
synonymseniornew
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Hippoglossina bollsmani Gilbert, 1890
synonymseniororiginal
Hippoglossina stomata Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1890
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
synonymseniornew
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
Thysanopsetta naresi Günther, 1880
acceptedseniororiginal2
Xystreurys liolepis Jordan & Gilbert, 1880
acceptedseniororiginal2
Xystreurys rasile (Jordan, 1891)
acceptedseniornew
Verecundum rasile Jordan, 1891
synonymseniororiginal2
Etropus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
acceptedseniororiginal2
Citharichthys crossotus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882)
synonymseniornew
Citharichthys crossotus crossotus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882)
synonymseniornew
Etropus crossotus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
synonymseniorchange in rank
Etropus intermedius Norman, 1933
synonymjuniororiginal2
Etropus microstomus (Gill, 1864)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
Etropus rimosus Goode & Bean, 1885
acceptedseniororiginal2
Etropus ectenes Jordan, 1889
acceptedseniororiginal2
Etropus longimanus Norman, 1933
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniorchange in rank
Etropus delsmani Chabanaud, 1940
acceptedseniororiginal5
Etropus peruvianus Hildebrand, 1946
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal5
Etropus cyclosquamus Leslie & Stewart, 1986
acceptedseniororiginal2
Etropus ciadi van der Heiden & Plascencia González, 2005
acceptedseniororiginal2
Cyclopsetta fimbriata (Goode & Bean, 1885)
acceptedseniornew
Hemirhombus fimbriatus Goode & Bean, 1885
synonymseniororiginal2
! Cyclopseta fimbriata (Goode & Bean, 1885)
synonymseniornew
Cyclopsetta panamensis (Steindachner, 1876)
acceptedseniornew
Citharichthys panamensis Steindachner, 1876
synonymseniororiginal2
Azevia panamensis (Steindachner, 1876)
synonymseniornew
Cyclopsetta querna (Jordan & Bollman, 1890)
acceptedseniornew
Azevia querna Jordan & Bollman, 1890
synonymseniororiginal2
Dorsopsetta norma Nielsen, 1963
synonymjuniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
Tarphops oligolepis (Bleeker, 1858)
acceptedseniornew
Rhombus oligolepis Bleeker, 1858
synonymseniororiginal2
Pseudorhombus oligolepis (Bleeker, 1858)
synonymseniornew
Tarphops elegans Amaoka, 1969
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Cephalopsetta ventrocellata Dutt & Rao, 1965
synonymseniororiginal
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