Family Sphyrnidae - Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks
  Order
:
  Class
:
Elasmobranchii
No. in FishBase
:
Genera : 2 | Species : 10 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
  Environment
:
Fresh : No | Brackish : Yes | Marine : Yes
  Division
:
Marine
  Aquarium
:
none
  First Fossil Record
:
upper   Cretaceous    
Ref..   Berg, L.S. 1958
  Remark
:
Marine, coastal; occasionally in brackish water. Distribution: global (chiefly warm waters). Head laterally expanded, with eyes and nasal openings much wider set than in other sharks. The blades presumably server to increase the sharks' sensory capabilities. No spiracle. A maximum length of 4.5 m was reported for Sphyrna tudes. They feed on a wide variety of bony fish, elasmobranchs, cephalopods, crustaceans, and other prey. Young born fully developed. Potentially dangerous.
  Etymology
:
Greek, sphyra = hammer. ( Ref. 45335).
  Reproductive guild
:
bearers
  Typical activity level
:
active
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:
  Deep Fin Classification
:

Show species images | Show valid names | Nominal species list | Identification keys | CAS specimen photos | References

 
Ref.
[ e.g. 9948]
Glossary
[ e.g. cephalopods]


Species/Synonymy list for the family Sphyrnidae as currently in FishBase

Important recommendation:

The list below must not be used as an authority reference synonymy list like those found in scientific published revisions, which must be the source to be used and cited eventually when they exist.

Rather, it reflects the current content of FishBase, and the progress with respect to synchronization with the Catalog of Fishes. However, we think it can be useful for users to assess the quality of information in FishBase, to start new work on the family, or to cross-check with other lists.

But we appreciate to be cited in publications when this list has been of any working value. In particular, for published scientific, we suggest then to cite it in the Material and Method section as a useful tool to conduct the research, but again, not as a taxonomic or nomenclatural authority reference.

Unless it is explicitly precised, the list is not complete, please search all original names published for the family in the Catalog of Fishes (genera, species), including those with uncertain or unknown status, that are not included in FishBase when they are not attached to a valid species.

This list uses some data from Catalog of Fishes (not shown but used to sort names).

In the column CofF, the digit indicates the status of synchronization with CofF: 0: Not checked; 1: Same status;   2: Different status;   3: Other combination;   4: Synonym in CofF;   5: Species/Subspecies issue;   6: Synonym of another species in CofF;   7: Not in CofF;   8: Should not be in CofF. The CofF version currently used is the one published on 23-07-2014 (Ref. 97102).

The list ordered as follows:

Please send comments and corrections if you detect errors or missing names.

Show all | Show only accepted name | Show only accepted and original names
Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination CofF
Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758)
acceptedseniornew
Squalus zygaena Linnaeus, 1758
synonymseniororiginal2
! Sphyrna zigaena (Linnaeus, 1758)
synonymseniornew
! Spyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758)
synonymseniornew
Squalus carolinensis Blainville, 1816
ambiguousquestionableoriginal2
Squalis pictus Blainville, 1816
ambiguousquestionableoriginal2
Zygaena malleus Valenciennes, 1822
synonymjuniororiginal2
Squalus malleus (Valenciennes, 1822)
synonymjuniornew
Zygaena vulgaris Cloquet, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Zygaena subarcuata Storer, 1848
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyrna lewini (non Griffith & Smith, 1834)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyrna mokarran (non Rüppell, 1837)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyrna tiburo (Linnaeus, 1758)
acceptedseniornew
Squalus tiburo Linnaeus, 1758
synonymseniororiginal2
Sphyrna tiburo tiburo (Linnaeus, 1758)
synonymseniornew
Sphyrna vespertina Springer, 1940
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyrna tudes (Valenciennes, 1822)
acceptedseniornew
Zygaena tudes Valenciennes, 1822
synonymseniororiginal2
! Sphyraena tudes (Valenciennes, 1822)
synonymseniornew
! Spyrna tudes (Valenciennes, 1822)
synonymseniornew
Sphyrna bigelowi Springer, 1944
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834)
acceptedseniornew
Zygaena lewini Griffith & Smith, 1834
synonymseniororiginal2
! Sphyrna leweni (Griffith & Smith, 1834)
synonymseniornew
Zygaena indica van Hasselt, 1823
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Zygaena erythraea Klunzinger, 1871
synonymjuniororiginal2
Cestracion oceanica Garman, 1913
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyrna diplana Springer, 1941
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyrna zygaena (non Linnaeus, 1758)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Zygaena malleus (non Shaw & Nodder, 1789)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyrna mokarran (non Rüppell, 1837)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837)
acceptedseniornew
Zygaena mokarran Rüppell, 1837
synonymseniororiginal2
! Sphyrna mokorran Rüppell, 1837
synonymseniororiginal
Zygaena dissimilis Murray, 1887
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyrna ligo Fraser-Brunner, 1950
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyrna zygaena (non Linnaeus, 1758)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyrna tudes (non Valenciennes, 1822)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Zygaena tudes (non Valenciennes, 1822)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyrna lewini (non Griffith & Smith, 1834)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyrna corona Springer, 1940
acceptedseniororiginal2
Sphyrna media Springer, 1940
acceptedseniororiginal2
Sphyrna nana Sadowsky, 1965
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyrna couardi Cadenat, 1951
acceptedseniororiginal2
Zygaena tudes (non Valenciennes, 1822)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyrna gilberti Quattro, Driggers III, Grady, Ulrich & Roberts, 2013
acceptedseniororiginal2
Eusphyra blochii (Cuvier, 1816)
acceptedseniornew
Zygaena blochii Cuvier, 1816
synonymseniororiginal2
Cestracion blochi (Cuvier, 1816)
synonymseniornew
Sphyrna blochii (Cuvier, 1816)
synonymseniornew
! Eusphyrna blochi (Cuvier, 1816)
synonymseniornew
! Eusphyrna blochii (Cuvier, 1816)
synonymseniornew
Zygaena latycephala van Hasselt, 1823
synonymjuniororiginal2
Zygaena laticeps Cantor, 1837
synonymjuniororiginal2
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