Family Sternopygidae - Glass knifefishes
  Order
:
  Class
:
Actinopterygii
No. in FishBase
:
Genera : 6 | Species : 36 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
  Environment
:
Fresh : Yes | Brackish : No | Marine : No
  Division
:
Primary freshwater
  Aquarium
:
some
  First Fossil Record
:
     
  Remark
:
Species diversity and systematics of the Sternopygidae has been reviewed by Mago-Leccia (1978), Lundberg and Mago-Leccia (1986), Albert and Fink (1996), Albert and Campos-da-Paz (1998), Alves-Gomes (1998), and Albert (2001). Sternopygid species possess the following unique combination of characters among gymnotiforms: multiple rows of small, villiform (brush-like) teeth in both jaws; large eye (diameter equal to or greater than distance between nares); infraorbital bones large and bag-like, with expanded bony arches; anterior nares located outside gape; anal-fin origin at isthmus; no urogenital papilla, caudal fin or dorsal organ. Sternopygids possess a tone-type electric organ discharge, characterized by a monophasic hyperpolarization from negative baseline. There are currently 40 names available in the literature for sternopygid genera and species. Of these, 6 generic and 30 species names are valid. There are in addition 11 manuscript names for species currently in preparation, bringing the known diversity of Sternopygidae to 41 species. Many more sternopygid species are anticipated, as the rate of description is accelerating. Sternopygid are relatively conservative in terms of overall external morphology. Like all gymnotiforms the shape is culteriform, with an elongate body and anal fin. Higher level sternopygid taxonomy emphasizes differences in orbital margin, extent of body compression, and osteological features. Many sternopygid species specialized for life in main river channels. Many species are highly compressed laterally and translucent in life (e.g., some Eigenmannia, Rhabdolichops). Sternopygids are medium to large-sized gymnotiforms, exhibiting substantial diversity in total adult body size, from 120 mm (Sternopygus vicentespelaea) to 1.4 M (Sternopygus macrurus). The Sternopygidae is confined to the Humid Neotropics, ranging the Rio de la Plata of Argentina (35° S) to the Rio Tuira of Panama (8°N). Sternopygids are known from the continental waters of all South American countries except Chile (Albert, 2001), and are most diverse - both taxonomically and ecologically - in the Amazon basin. The ecology and natural history of most sternopygid species is very poorly understood. Sternopygus is the most widely distributed sternopygid genus, in terms of both geography and habitat, extending the full range of the family. Sternopygus species inhabit both floodplain and tierra firme (non-floodplain) streams and rivers. Many sternopygids forage on small aquatic animals (e.g., dipteran larvae) from the benthos or roots of aquatic vegetation; Rhabdolichops species are planktivorous, consuming insect and crustacean larvae. Sternopygid systematics and taxonomy is rapidly changing as new species and previously undocumented phenotypes are discovered. The total expected number of species cannot currently be estimated with confidence. A large number of undescribed sternopygid species are known in museum collections and many more are likely to be captured from continued field studies, particularly in Western Amazonia. There is little direct commercial exploitation of sternopygid species. Some Eigenmannia species are ecologically important in many riverine systems, often constituting a large proportion of the biomass, and are presumed to form an important base of the food web in main Amazonian river channels (Lundberg et al., 1987). Two species, Sternopygus macrurus and Eigenmannia cf. virescens are common in the aquarium trade. Sternopygids are not usually eaten by humans, although some large (40 - 60 cm) specimens of riverine Sternopygus spp. are sometimes caught on hook and line.
  Etymology
:
Greek, sternon = chest, breast + Greek, pyge = anus ( Ref. 45335).
  Reproductive guild
:
nonguarders
  Typical activity level
:
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:
  Deep Fin Classification
:
Osteichthyes | Actinopterygii | Actinopteri | Neopterygii | Teleostei | Osteoglossocephalai | Clupeocephala | Otomorpha | Ostariophysi | Otophysa | Characiphysae | Gymnotiformes | Sternopygoidei | Sternopygidae

Show species images | Show valid names | Nominal species list | Identification keys | CAS specimen photos | References

 
Ref.
[ e.g. 9948]
Glossary
[ e.g. cephalopods]


Species/Synonymy list for the family Sternopygidae as currently in FishBase

Important recommendation:

The list below must not be used as an authority reference synonymy list like those found in scientific published revisions, which must be the source to be used and cited eventually when they exist.

Rather, it reflects the current content of FishBase, and the progress with respect to synchronization with the Catalog of Fishes. However, we think it can be useful for users to assess the quality of information in FishBase, to start new work on the family, or to cross-check with other lists.

But we appreciate to be cited in publications when this list has been of any working value. In particular, for published scientific, we suggest then to cite it in the Material and Method section as a useful tool to conduct the research, but again, not as a taxonomic or nomenclatural authority reference.

Unless it is explicitly precised, the list is not complete, please search all original names published for the family in the Catalog of Fishes (genera, species), including those with uncertain or unknown status, that are not included in FishBase when they are not attached to a valid species.

This list uses some data from Catalog of Fishes (not shown but used to sort names).

In the column CofF, the digit indicates the status of synchronization with CofF: 0: Not checked; 1: Same status;   2: Different status;   3: Other combination;   4: Synonym in CofF;   5: Species/Subspecies issue;   6: Synonym of another species in CofF;   7: Not in CofF;   8: Should not be in CofF. The CofF version currently used is the one published on 15-11-2013 (Ref. 94485).

The list ordered as follows:

Please send comments and corrections if you detect errors or missing names.

Show all | Show only accepted name | Show only accepted and original names
Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination CofF
Sternopygus macrurus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
acceptedseniornew
Gymnotus macrurus Bloch & Schneider, 1801
synonymseniororiginal1
Sternopygus marcgravii Reinhardt, 1852
synonymjuniororiginal1
Carapus sanguinolentus Castelnau, 1855
ambiguousquestionableoriginal1
Hildatia brasiliensis Fernández-Yépez, 1968
synonymjuniororiginal1
Sternopygus obtusirostris (non Steindachner, 1881)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sternopygus aequilabiatus (Humboldt, 1805)
acceptedseniornew
Gymnotus aequilabiatus Humboldt, 1805
synonymseniororiginal1
synonymseniornew
Sternopygus dariensis Meek & Hildebrand, 1916
synonymjuniororiginal1
Sternopygus aequilabiatus dariensis Meek & Hildebrand, 1916
synonymjuniorchange in rank
Sternopygus arenatus (Eydoux & Souleyet, 1850)
acceptedseniornew
Carapus arenatus Eydoux & Souleyet, 1850
synonymseniororiginal1
Sternopygus aequilabiatus arenatus (Eydoux & Souleyet, 1850)
synonymseniornew
Sternopygus obtusirostris Steindachner, 1881
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternopygus pejeraton Schultz, 1949
acceptedseniororiginal1
synonymseniorchange in rank
Sternopygus astrabes Mago-Leccia, 1994
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternopygus xingu Albert & Fink, 1996
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternopygus castroi Triques, 2000
acceptedseniororiginal2
Sternopygus branco Crampton, Hulen & Albert, 2004
acceptedseniororiginal1
Eigenmannia humboldtii (Steindachner, 1878)
acceptedseniornew
Sternopygus humboldtii Steindachner, 1878
synonymseniororiginal1
Eigenmannia virescens (Valenciennes, 1836)
acceptedseniornew
Sternachus virescens Valenciennes, 1836
synonymseniororiginal1
! Sternatchus virescens Valenciennes, 1836
synonymseniororiginal
Sternopygus tumifrons Müller & Troschel, 1849
synonymjuniororiginal1
Sternopygus lineatus Müller & Troschel, 1849
synonymjuniororiginal1
Eigenmannia lineata (Müller & Troschel, 1849)
synonymjuniornew
Eigenmannia microstoma (Reinhardt, 1852)
acceptedseniornew
Sternopygus microstomus Reinhardt, 1852
synonymseniororiginal1
Eigenmannia macrops (Boulenger, 1897)
acceptedseniornew
Sternopygus macrops Boulenger, 1897
synonymseniororiginal1
Eigenmannia limbata (Schreiner & Miranda Ribeiro, 1903)
acceptedseniornew
Sternopygus limbatus Schreiner & Miranda Ribeiro, 1903
synonymseniororiginal1
Eigenmannia trilineata López & Castello, 1966
acceptedseniororiginal1
Eigenmannia nigra Mago-Leccia, 1994
acceptedseniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal1
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal1
Sternopygus axillaris Günther, 1868
synonymjuniororiginal1
Rhabdolichops longicaudatus Eigenmann & Allen, 1942
synonymjuniororiginal1
Rhabdolichops caviceps (Fernández-Yépez, 1968)
acceptedseniornew
Guichthys caviceps Fernández-Yépez, 1968
synonymseniororiginal1
Rhabdolichops eastwardi Lundberg & Mago-Leccia, 1986
acceptedseniororiginal1
Rhabdolichops electrogrammus Lundberg & Mago-Leccia, 1986
acceptedseniororiginal1
Rhabdolichops stewarti Lundberg & Mago-Leccia, 1986
acceptedseniororiginal1
Rhabdolichops zareti Lundberg & Mago-Leccia, 1986
acceptedseniororiginal1
Rhabdolichops jegui Keith & Meunier, 2000
acceptedseniororiginal1
Rhabdolichops lundbergi Correa, Crampton & Albert, 2006
acceptedseniororiginal1
Rhabdolichops navalha Correa, Crampton & Albert, 2006
acceptedseniororiginal1
Rhabdolichops nigrimans Correa, Crampton & Albert, 2006
acceptedseniororiginal1
Archolaemus blax Korringa, 1970
acceptedseniororiginal1
! Archeolaemus blax Korringa, 1970
synonymseniororiginal
Archolaemus ferreirai Vari, de Santana & Wosiacki, 2012
acceptedseniororiginal2
Archolaemus janeae Vari, de Santana & Wosiacki, 2012
acceptedseniororiginal2
Archolaemus luciae Vari, de Santana & Wosiacki, 2012
acceptedseniororiginal2
Archolaemus orientalis Stewart, Vari, de Santana & Wosiacki, 2012
acceptedseniororiginal2
Archolaemus santosi Vari, de Santana & Wosiacki, 2012
acceptedseniororiginal2
Distocyclus conirostris (Eigenmann & Allen, 1942)
acceptedseniornew
Eigenmannia conirostris Eigenmann & Allen, 1942
synonymseniororiginal1
Distocyclus goajira (Schultz, 1949)
acceptedseniornew
Eigenmannia goajira Schultz, 1949
synonymseniororiginal1
Japigny kirschbaum Meunier, Jégu & Keith, 2011
acceptedseniororiginal1
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