Family Linophrynidae - Leftvents
  Order
:
  Class
:
Actinopterygii
No. in FishBase
:
Genera : 5 | Species : 27 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
  Environment
:
Fresh : No | Brackish : No | Marine : Yes
  Division
:
Marine
  Aquarium
:
none
  First Fossil Record
:
     
  Remark
:
Distribution: Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and Gulf of Panama. (Ref. 7463) Distinguishing character: Any one of three distinctive characters sufficiently defines members of this family: reduced number of median-fin rays: only 3 (rarely 4) dorsal-fin rays and 3 (rarely 2 or 4) anal-fin rays; reduced number of branchiostegal rays: only 5 (rarely 4); and a peculiar displacement of the vent or anal opening to the left of center (sinistral) in all members of this family (the cause and function unknown); great morphological diversity with the family best addressed by an appreciation of specific and detailed generic accounts; but, other general characteristics include: body of metamorphosed females short to somewhat globular, relatively short snout, large head (usually in excess of 50% SL from snout tip to pectoral-fin base), large mouth (some species may well have the largest mouth of any vertebrate), jaws almost anteriorly equal (in some, the lower jaw just a bit longer than the upper jaw), with a symphysial spine on the lower jaw, well developed sphenotic spines, lacking quadrate and articular spines, the hyomandibular with a single head (feature shared with neoceratiids and gigantactinids), bifurcated opercle with a moderately concave posterior margin, long and thin subopercle lacking a spine or projection on the anterior margin, the preopercle usually bearing one or more prominent spines, the skin is all smooth and naked, lacking dermal spinules; highly variable dentition among genera; the illicial pterygiophore unusually short (anterior end buried under the skin of the head or slightly protruding on the snout), lacking a remnant of the second cephalic spine; length of illicium highly variable among genera (from almost totally embedded to as much as 70% SL); escal morphology also with enormous variations (from simple to highly ornate); bioluminescent hyoid barbel only in Linophryne; the overall color of metamorphosed females usually dark brown to black with the exception of the escal appendages, the distal parts of the escal bulb, the barbel of Linophryne ,and fin rays with the total exclusion of Haplophryne (having no skin pigmentation). Free-living and parasitic males known for all except Acentrophryne; eyes of metamorphosed free-living males relatively large (6 to 9% SL diameter), anteriorly directed and somewhat tubular; olfactory organs inflated and moderately to highly enlarged; variable number of olfactory lamellae among genera from 3 to 13; presence and number of jaw teeth in males also variable among genera; sphenotic spines present in only 2 taxa; hyoid barbel in males absent in all genera; skin naked, lacking dermal spinules; parasitic males with denticular teeth, eyes, and olfactory organs appearing rather degenerated and the belly highly inflated in mature specimens; presence of skin pigmentation in free-living males also variable (from dark brown to black to completely unpigmented). Pectoral-fin rays: 13 to 19, caudal-fin rays: 9 (2 simple + 4 bifurcated + 3 simple). Largest known female measure 27.5 cm; largest known free-living male measure 0.86 cm; largest known parasitic males among the genera range from 0.73 to 3.0 cm. (Ref. 86949)
  Etymology
:
Greek, 'linon' = flax or anything made of flax such as "cord," "rope," or a "net" + Greek, 'phryne' = toad (refers to a toadlike fish that fishes with a net) (Ref. 86949)
  Reproductive guild
:
nonguarders
  Typical activity level
:
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:
  Deep Fin Classification
:
Osteichthyes | Actinopterygii | Actinopteri | Neopterygii | Teleostei | Osteoglossocephalai | Clupeocephala | Euteleosteomorpha | Neoteleostei | Eurypterygia | Ctenosquamata | Acanthomorphata | Euacanthomorphacea | Percomorphaceae | Percomorpharia | Lophiiformes | Ceratioidei | Linophrynidae

Show species images | Show valid names | Nominal species list | Identification keys | CAS specimen photos | References

 
Ref.
[ e.g. 9948]
Glossary
[ e.g. cephalopods]


Species/Synonymy list for the family Linophrynidae as currently in FishBase

Important recommendation:

The list below must not be used as an authority reference synonymy list like those found in scientific published revisions, which must be the source to be used and cited eventually when they exist.

Rather, it reflects the current content of FishBase, and the progress with respect to synchronization with the Catalog of Fishes. However, we think it can be useful for users to assess the quality of information in FishBase, to start new work on the family, or to cross-check with other lists.

But we appreciate to be cited in publications when this list has been of any working value. In particular, for published scientific, we suggest then to cite it in the Material and Method section as a useful tool to conduct the research, but again, not as a taxonomic or nomenclatural authority reference.

Unless it is explicitly precised, the list is not complete, please search all original names published for the family in the Catalog of Fishes (genera, species), including those with uncertain or unknown status, that are not included in FishBase when they are not attached to a valid species.

This list uses some data from Catalog of Fishes (not shown but used to sort names).

In the column CofF, the digit indicates the status of synchronization with CofF: 0: Not checked; 1: Same status;   2: Different status;   3: Other combination;   4: Synonym in CofF;   5: Species/Subspecies issue;   6: Synonym of another species in CofF;   7: Not in CofF;   8: Should not be in CofF. The CofF version currently used is the one published on 19-05-2014 (Ref. 95876).

The list ordered as follows:

Please send comments and corrections if you detect errors or missing names.

Show all | Show only accepted name | Show only accepted and original names
Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination CofF
Linophryne lucifer Collett, 1886
acceptedseniororiginal1
! Linophryne lucifera Collett, 1886
synonymseniororiginal
Linophryne digitopogon Balushkin & Trunov, 1988
synonymjuniororiginal2
Linophryne indica (Brauer, 1902)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal1
Linophryne corymbifera Regan & Trewavas, 1932
synonymjuniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal
! Linophryne arborifer Regan, 1925
synonymseniororiginal1
Linophryne eupogon Regan & Trewavas, 1932
synonymjuniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal1
synonymjuniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal1
Linophryne arcturi (Beebe, 1926)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal1
synonymjuniororiginal1
synonymjuniororiginal1
Linophryne argyresca Regan & Trewavas, 1932
acceptedseniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal1
Linophryne racemifera Regan & Trewavas, 1932
acceptedseniororiginal1
Linophryne algibarbata Waterman, 1939
acceptedseniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal1
Linophryne quinqueramosa Beebe & Crane, 1947
acceptedseniororiginal
! Linophryne quinqueramosus Beebe & Crane, 1947
synonymseniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal1
Linophryne sexfilis Bertelsen, 1973
acceptedseniororiginal1
Linophryne trewavasae Bertelsen, 1978
acceptedseniororiginal1
Linophryne parini Bertelsen, 1980
acceptedseniororiginal1
Linophryne pennibarbata Bertelsen, 1980
acceptedseniororiginal1
Linophryne bipennata Bertelsen, 1982
acceptedseniororiginal1
Linophryne escaramosa Bertelsen, 1982
acceptedseniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal1
Haplophryne mollis (Brauer, 1902)
acceptedseniornew
Aceratias mollis Brauer, 1902
synonymseniororiginal1
synonymjuniororiginal1
! Eridolchynus schmidti Regan, 1925
synonymjuniororiginal
Edriolychnus macracanthus Regan & Trewavas, 1932
synonymjuniororiginal1
Edriolychnus radians Regan & Trewavas, 1932
synonymjuniororiginal1
Edriolychnus roulei Regan & Trewavas, 1932
synonymjuniororiginal1
Haplophryne triregium Whitley & Phillipps, 1939
synonymjuniororiginal2
Borophryne apogon Regan, 1925
acceptedseniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal1
Borophryne apogon (non Regan, 1925)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Acentrophryne dolichonema Pietsch & Shimazaki, 2005
acceptedseniororiginal1
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