Family Lethrinidae - Emperors or scavengers
  Order
:
  Class
:
Actinopterygii
No. in FishBase
:
Genera : 5 | Species : 38 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
  Environment
:
Fresh : No | Brackish : Yes | Marine : Yes
  Division
:
Marine
  Aquarium
:
some
  First Fossil Record
:
lower   Tertiary     Eocene
Ref..   Berg, L.S. 1958
  Remark
:
Distribution: Tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific (only Lethrinus atlanticus occurs in the Atlantic, off West Africa). Lethrinids are bottom-feeding, carnivorous, coastal fishes, ranging primarily on or near reefs. They typically feed primarily at night on benthic invertebrates or fishes, those with molariform teeth mainly on hard-shelled invertebrates. Lethrinids can be solitary or schooling and do not appear to be territorial. They often form large aggregations for pelagic spawning. Protogynous hermaphroditism (sex reversal from female to male) has been demonstrated in several species of Lethrinus. Dorsal fin with 10 spines and 9-10 soft rays. Three spines in anal fin; soft rays 8-10. Accessory subpelvic keel absent. Subocular shelf small. All but the smallest emperors are esteemed food fishes, although an iodoform odor is attributed to individuals of some species when cooked (Ref. 4537).
  Etymology
:
Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus
  Reproductive guild
:
nonguarders
  Typical activity level
:
normal
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:
  Deep Fin Classification
:
Osteichthyes | Actinopterygii | Actinopteri | Neopterygii | Teleostei | Osteoglossocephalai | Clupeocephala | Euteleosteomorpha | Neoteleostei | Eurypterygia | Ctenosquamata | Acanthomorphata | Euacanthomorphacea | Percomorphaceae | Percomorpharia | Spariformes | Lethrinidae

Show species images | Show valid names | Nominal species list | Identification keys | CAS specimen photos | References

 
Ref.
[ e.g. 9948]
Glossary
[ e.g. cephalopods]


Species/Synonymy list for the family Lethrinidae as currently in FishBase

Important recommendation:

The list below must not be used as an authority reference synonymy list like those found in scientific published revisions, which must be the source to be used and cited eventually when they exist.

Rather, it reflects the current content of FishBase, and the progress with respect to synchronization with the Catalog of Fishes. However, we think it can be useful for users to assess the quality of information in FishBase, to start new work on the family, or to cross-check with other lists.

But we appreciate to be cited in publications when this list has been of any working value. In particular, for published scientific, we suggest then to cite it in the Material and Method section as a useful tool to conduct the research, but again, not as a taxonomic or nomenclatural authority reference.

Unless it is explicitly precised, the list is not complete, please search all original names published for the family in the Catalog of Fishes (genera, species), including those with uncertain or unknown status, that are not included in FishBase when they are not attached to a valid species.

This list uses some data from Catalog of Fishes (not shown but used to sort names).

In the column CofF, the digit indicates the status of synchronization with CofF: 0: Not checked; 1: Same status;   2: Different status;   3: Other combination;   4: Synonym in CofF;   5: Species/Subspecies issue;   6: Synonym of another species in CofF;   7: Not in CofF;   8: Should not be in CofF. The CofF version currently used is the one published on 23-07-2014 (Ref. 97102).

The list ordered as follows:

Please send comments and corrections if you detect errors or missing names.

Show all | Show only accepted name | Show only accepted and original names
Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination CofF
Lethrininae
Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål, 1775)
acceptedseniornew
Sciaena nebulosa Forsskål, 1775
synonymseniororiginal2
Sparus choerorynchus Bloch & Schneider, 1801
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus choerorynchus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
synonymjuniornew
Lethrinus maculatus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus erythrurus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus gothofredi Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus korely Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus centurio Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus esculentus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus karwa Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus alboguttatus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus fasciatus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus fraenatus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
! Lethrinus frenatus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal
Lethrinus cyanoxanthus Richardson, 1843
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus anatarius Richardson, 1845
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus guentheri Bleeker, 1873
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus scoparius Gilchrist & Thompson, 1908
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus devisianus Whitley, 1929
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus perselectus Whitley, 1933
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus harak (non Forsskål, 1775)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus amboinensis (non Bleeker, 1854)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
! Lethtinus fletus (non Whitley, 1943)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775)
acceptedseniornew
Sciaena harak Forsskål, 1775
synonymseniororiginal2
Lethrinus azureus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus rhodopterus Bleeker, 1852
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus johnii Castelnau, 1873
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus bonhamensis Günther, 1874
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus papuensis Alleyne & Macleay, 1877
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus bleekeri Klunzinger, 1884
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus mahsena (Forsskål, 1775)
acceptedseniornew
Sciaena mahsena Forsskål, 1775
synonymseniororiginal2
Lethrinus caeruleus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus abbreviatus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus obsoletus (Forsskål, 1775)
acceptedseniornew
Sciaena obsoleta Forsskål, 1775
synonymseniororiginal2
Sciaena ramak Forsskål, 1775
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus ramak (Forsskål, 1775)
synonymjuniornew
Lethrinus cutambi Seale, 1910
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus miniatus (Forster, 1801)
acceptedseniornew
Sparus miniatus Forster, 1801
synonymseniororiginal2
Lethrinella miniata (Forster, 1801)
synonymseniornew
Lethrinella miniatus (Forster, 1801)
synonymseniornew
Lethrinus chrysostomus Richardson, 1848
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus amamianus Akazaki, 1962
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède, 1802)
acceptedseniornew
Bodianus lentjan Lacepède, 1802
synonymseniororiginal2
! Letherinus lentjanus (Lacepède, 1802)
synonymseniornew
! Letherinus leutjanus (Lacepède, 1802)
synonymseniornew
Lethrinus argenteus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus croceopterus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus cinereus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus mahsenoides Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus opercularis Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus flavescens Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus geniguttatus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus virescens Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Pentapodus nubilus Cantor, 1849
synonymjuniororiginal2
! Lethrinus nubilis (Cantor, 1849)
synonymjuniornew
! Pentapodus nubilis Cantor, 1849
synonymjuniororiginal
Lethrinus cocosensis Bleeker, 1854
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus glyphodon Günther, 1859
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus punctulatus Macleay, 1878
synonymjuniororiginal1
Lethrinus fusciceps Macleay, 1878
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus atlanticus Valenciennes, 1830
acceptedseniororiginal2
Lethrinus borbonicus Valenciennes, 1830
acceptedseniororiginal2
Lethrinus bungus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus mahsenoides (non Valenciennes, 1830)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus erythracanthus Valenciennes, 1830
acceptedseniororiginal2
Lethrinus cinnabarinus Richardson, 1843
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus kallopterus Bleeker, 1856
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus erythropterus Valenciennes, 1830
acceptedseniororiginal2
Lethrinus striatus Steindachner, 1866
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus genivittatus Valenciennes, 1830
acceptedseniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus microdon Valenciennes, 1830
acceptedseniororiginal2
Lethrinella microdon (Valenciennes, 1830)
synonymseniornew
Lethrinus elongatus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus acutus Klunzinger, 1884
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus olivaceus Valenciennes, 1830
acceptedseniororiginal2
Lethrinus rostratus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus waigiensis Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus xanthopterus Valenciennes, 1830
ambiguousquestionableoriginal2
Lethrinus longirostris Playfair, 1867
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus elongatus (non Valenciennes, 1830)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus miniatus (non Valenciennes, 1830)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus ornatus Valenciennes, 1830
acceptedseniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
! Lethtinus erythrurus (non Valenciennes, 1830)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus reticulatus Valenciennes, 1830
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Lethrinus reticularis Valenciennes, 1830
synonymseniororiginal
Lethrinus semicinctus Valenciennes, 1830
acceptedseniororiginal2
Lethrinus sordidus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus moensii Bleeker, 1855
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus reticulatus (non Valenciennes, 1830)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus variegatus (non Valenciennes, 1830)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus variegatus Valenciennes, 1830
acceptedseniororiginal2
Lethrinella variegata (Valenciennes, 1830)
synonymseniornew
Lethrinella variegatus (Valenciennes, 1830)
synonymseniornew
! Lethrinus variagatus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymseniororiginal
! Lethrinus variegates Valenciennes, 1830
synonymseniororiginal
Lethrinus latifrons Rüppell, 1838
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus miniatus (non Forster, 1801)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus semicinctus (non Valenciennes, 1830)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel, 1844
acceptedseniororiginal2
Lethrinus richardsonii Günther, 1859
synonymjuniororiginal2
! Lethrinus richardsoni Günther, 1859
synonymjuniororiginal
Lethrinus genivittatus (non Valenciennes, 1830)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Gymnocranius griseus (non Temminck & Schlegel, 1843)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus kallopterus (non Bleeker, 1856)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus amboinensis Bleeker, 1854
acceptedseniororiginal2
Lethrinus xanthochilus Klunzinger, 1870
acceptedseniororiginal2
Lethrinella xanthochila (Klunzinger, 1870)
synonymseniornew
! Lethrinella xanthocheilus (Klunzinger, 1870)
synonymseniornew
! Lethrinus xanthocheilus Klunzinger, 1870
synonymseniororiginal
! Lethrinus xantochilus Klunzinger, 1870
synonymseniororiginal
Lethrinus microdon (non Valenciennes, 1830)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus variegatus (non Valenciennes, 1830)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus laticaudis Alleyne & Macleay, 1877
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Lethrinus lacticaudis Alleyne & Macleay, 1877
synonymseniororiginal
Lethrinus fletus Whitley, 1943
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus fraenatus (non Valenciennes, 1830)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Lethrinus atkinson Seale, 1910
synonymseniororiginal
Lethrinus mahsena (non Forsskål, 1775)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus mahsenoides (non Valenciennes, 1830)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus sanguineus (non Smith, 1955)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
! Lethrinus concyliatus (Smith, 1959)
synonymseniornew
Lethrinus floridus Wheeler, 1961
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus miniatus (non Forster, 1801)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
acceptedseniororiginal2
Lethrinus hypselopterus (non Bleeker, 1873)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
Lethrinella variegatus (non Valenciennes, 1830)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Lethrinus ravus Carpenter & Randall, 2003
acceptedseniororiginal2
Monotaxinae
Monotaxis grandoculis (Forsskål, 1775)
acceptedseniornew
Sciaena grandoculis Forsskål, 1775
synonymseniororiginal2
! Monotaxis grandocculis (Forsskål, 1775)
synonymseniornew
! Monotaxis grandoculus (Forsskål, 1775)
synonymseniornew
Monotaxis indica Anonymous [Bennett], 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Lethrinus latidens Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Pagrus heterodon Bleeker, 1854
synonymjuniororiginal2
Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes, 1830)
acceptedseniornew
Cantharus grandoculis Valenciennes, 1830
synonymseniororiginal2
! Gymnocranium grandoculis (Valenciennes, 1830)
synonymseniornew
! Gymnocranius grandocculis (Valenciennes, 1830)
synonymseniornew
! Gymnocranius grandoculus (Valenciennes, 1830)
synonymseniornew
Dentex rivulatus Rüppell, 1838
synonymjuniororiginal2
Gymnocranius rivulatus (Rüppell, 1838)
synonymjuniornew
Dentex lethrinoides Bleeker, 1850
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniornew
Pentapus dux Valenciennes, 1862
synonymjuniororiginal2
Pentapus curtus Guichenot, 1863
synonymjuniororiginal2
Dentex robinsoni Gilchrist & Thompson, 1909
synonymjuniororiginal2
Gymnocranius robinsoni (Gilchrist & Thompson, 1909)
synonymjuniornew
Paradentex marshalli Whitley, 1936
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Gymnocranius griseus (non Temminck & Schlegel, 1843)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Gymnocranius griseus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843)
acceptedseniornew
Dentex griseus Temminck & Schlegel, 1843
synonymseniororiginal2
! Gymnocranius griserus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843)
synonymseniornew
Lobotes microprion Bleeker, 1851
synonymjuniororiginal2
Gymnocranius orbis Fowler, 1938
synonymjuniororiginal2
Gymnocranius grandoculis (non Valenciennes, 1830)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Gymnocranius microdon (Bleeker, 1851)
acceptedseniornew
Dentex microdon Bleeker, 1851
synonymseniororiginal2
! Gymnocranium microdon (Bleeker, 1851)
synonymseniornew
Gymnocranius frenatus Bleeker, 1873
acceptedseniororiginal2
Gymnocranius euanus (Günther, 1879)
acceptedseniornew
Sphaerodon euanus Günther, 1879
synonymseniororiginal2
Monotaxis affinis Whitley, 1943
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
Gymnocranius bitorquatus Cockerell, 1916
synonymjuniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
synonymseniororiginal
Gymnocranius oblongus Borsa, Béarez & Chen, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal2
Gnathodentex aureolineatus (Lacepède, 1802)
acceptedseniornew
Sparus aureolineatus Lacepède, 1802
synonymseniororiginal2
! Gnathodentex aurilineatus (Lacepède, 1802)
synonymseniornew
! Gnathodentex aurolinaetus (Lacepède, 1802)
synonymseniornew
! Gnathodentex aurolineatus (Lacepède, 1802)
synonymseniornew
Dentex lycogenis Bennett, 1831
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal
Wattsia mossambica (Smith, 1957)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
! Wattsia mossambicus (Smith, 1957)
synonymseniornew
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