Family Istiophoridae - Billfishes
  Order
:
  Class
:
Actinopterygii
No. in FishBase
:
Genera : 5 | Species : 11 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
  Environment
:
Fresh : No | Brackish : No | Marine : Yes
  Division
:
Marine
  Aquarium
:
none
  First Fossil Record
:
upper   Cretaceous    
Ref..   Berg, L.S. 1958
  Remark
:
Distribution: most tropical and subtropical waters. Premaxilla and nasal bones produced, forming a spear-like bill or rostrum with a rounded cross-section. Gill membranes not united to isthmus. Very narrow pelvic fins. Jaw teeth present. Two keels on each side of caudal peduncle in adults. Dorsal fin extending over much of body length; sometimes resembling a sail. Dorsal fin can be depresssed into a groove. Lateral line persists in life. Vertebrae 24. Maximum length 4 m. Bill used for stunning prey fish. The morphological adaptations required for maintaining high brain and retinal temperatures are discussed in Brock et al. 1993 Science 260:210-214. Very popular as game fish.
  Etymology
:
Greek, istion = sail + Greek, pherein = to carry ( Ref. 45335).
  Reproductive guild
:
nonguarders
  Typical activity level
:
very active
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:
  Deep Fin Classification
:
Osteichthyes | Actinopterygii | Actinopteri | Neopterygii | Teleostei | Osteoglossocephalai | Clupeocephala | Euteleosteomorpha | Neoteleostei | Eurypterygia | Ctenosquamata | Acanthomorphata | Euacanthomorphacea | Percomorphaceae | Carangimorpharia | Istiophoriformes | Istiophoridae

Show species images | Show valid names | Nominal species list | Identification keys | CAS specimen photos | References

 
Ref.
[ e.g. 9948]
Glossary
[ e.g. cephalopods]


Species/Synonymy list for the family Istiophoridae as currently in FishBase

Important recommendation:

The list below must not be used as an authority reference synonymy list like those found in scientific published revisions, which must be the source to be used and cited eventually when they exist.

Rather, it reflects the current content of FishBase, and the progress with respect to synchronization with the Catalog of Fishes. However, we think it can be useful for users to assess the quality of information in FishBase, to start new work on the family, or to cross-check with other lists.

But we appreciate to be cited in publications when this list has been of any working value. In particular, for published scientific, we suggest then to cite it in the Material and Method section as a useful tool to conduct the research, but again, not as a taxonomic or nomenclatural authority reference.

Unless it is explicitly precised, the list is not complete, please search all original names published for the family in the Catalog of Fishes (genera, species), including those with uncertain or unknown status, that are not included in FishBase when they are not attached to a valid species.

This list uses some data from Catalog of Fishes (not shown but used to sort names).

In the column CofF, the digit indicates the status of synchronization with CofF: 0: Not checked; 1: Same status;   2: Different status;   3: Other combination;   4: Synonym in CofF;   5: Species/Subspecies issue;   6: Synonym of another species in CofF;   7: Not in CofF;   8: Should not be in CofF. The CofF version currently used is the one published on 19-05-2014 (Ref. 95876).

The list ordered as follows:

Please send comments and corrections if you detect errors or missing names.

Show all | Show only accepted name | Show only accepted and original names
Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination CofF
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal1
Scomber gladius Bloch, 1793
synonymjuniororiginal1
Histiophorus gladius (Bloch, 1793)
synonymjuniornew
Istiophorus gladius (Bloch, 1793)
synonymjuniornew
! Istiophorus gladus (Bloch, 1793)
synonymjuniornew
Xiphias velifer Bloch & Schneider, 1801
synonymjuniororiginal1
Istiophorus gladifer Lacepède, 1801
synonymjuniororiginal1
synonymjuniororiginal2
Istiophorus immaculatus (Rüppell, 1830)
synonymjuniornew
synonymjuniororiginal1
Histiophorus orientalis Temminck & Schlegel, 1844
synonymjuniororiginal1
Istiophorus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844)
synonymjuniornew
Istiophorus triactis Klunzinger, 1871
synonymjuniororiginal1
! Histiophorus dubius Bleeker, 1872
synonymjuniororiginal2
Istiophorus dubius Bleeker, 1872
synonymjuniororiginal
Istiophorus japonicus Jordan & Thompson, 1914
synonymjuniororiginal1
Istiophorus eriquius Jordan & Ball, 1926
synonymjuniororiginal1
Istiophorus greyi Jordan & Evermann, 1926
synonymjuniororiginal2
Istiophorus gladius greyi Jordan & Evermann, 1926
synonymjuniorchange in rank
! Istiophorus greyii Jordan & Evermann, 1926
synonymjuniororiginal
Istiophorus brookei Fowler, 1933
synonymjuniororiginal1
synonymjuniororiginal1
Istiophorus amarui Curtiss, 1944
synonymjuniororiginal1
Istiophorus albicans (Latreille, 1804)
acceptedseniornew
Makaira albicans Latreille, 1804
synonymseniororiginal2
Histiophorus albicans (Latreille, 1804)
synonymseniornew
Makaira velifera Cuvier, 1832
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Istiophorus americanus (Cuvier, 1832)
synonymjuniornew
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Histiophorus granulifer Castelnau, 1861
synonymjuniororiginal2
Istiophorus wrighti Jordan & Evermann, 1926
synonymjuniororiginal2
Istiophorus maguirei Jordan & Evermann, 1926
synonymjuniororiginal2
Istiophorus volador Jordan & Evermann, 1926
synonymjuniororiginal2
Istiophorus platypterus (non Shaw & Nodder, 1792)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Xiphias velifer (non Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Makaira nigricans Lacepède, 1802
acceptedseniororiginal1
synonymseniorchange in rank
! Maikaira nigricans Lacepède, 1802
synonymseniororiginal
Xiphias ensis Lacepède, 1800
ambiguousquestionableoriginal1
Makaira ensis (Lacepède, 1800)
ambiguousquestionablenew
synonymjuniororiginal1
synonymjuniornew
Makaira herschelii (Gray, 1838)
synonymjuniornew
synonymjuniororiginal1
Makaira ampla (Poey, 1860)
synonymjuniornew
Makaira ampla ampla (Poey, 1860)
synonymjuniornew
synonymjuniornew
Makaira bermudae Mowbray, 1931
synonymjuniororiginal1
Orthocraeros bermudae (Mowbray, 1931)
synonymjuniornew
Makaira perezi de Buen, 1950
synonymjuniororiginal1
Makaira mazara (Jordan & Snyder, 1901)
acceptedseniornew
Makaira ampla mazara (Jordan & Schneider, 1901)
synonymseniornew
Tetrapturus mazara Jordan & Snyder, 1901
synonymseniororiginal2
Istiompax mazara (Jordan & Snyder, 1901)
synonymseniornew
Makaira nigricans mazara (Jordan & Snyder, 1901)
synonymseniornew
Eumakaira nigra Hirasaka & Nakamura, 1947
synonymjuniororiginal2
Makaira nigra (Hirasaka & Nakamura, 1947)
synonymjuniornew
Istiompax howardi Whitley, 1954
synonymjuniororiginal2
Makaira nigricans (non Lacepède, 1802)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Tetrapturus belone Rafinesque, 1810
acceptedseniororiginal1
Histiophorus belone (Rafinesque, 1810)
synonymseniornew
Makaira belone (Rafinesque, 1810)
synonymseniornew
! Tetraplurus belone Rafinesque, 1810
synonymseniororiginal
! Tetrapterurus belone Rafinesque, 1810
synonymseniororiginal
! Tetrapterus belone Rafinesque, 1810
synonymseniororiginal
Skeponopodus typus Nardo, 1833
synonymjuniororiginal1
Scheponopodus prototypus Canestrini, 1872
synonymjuniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal1
! Tetrapturus georgei Lowe, 1841
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal1
synonymseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
Tetrapturus illingworthi Jordan & Evermann, 1926
synonymjuniororiginal1
Pseudohistiophorus illingworthi (Jordan & Evermann, 1926)
synonymjuniornew
Tetrapturus kraussi Jordan & Evermann, 1926
synonymjuniororiginal1
Tetrapturus pfluegeri Robins & de Sylva, 1963
acceptedseniororiginal1
! Tetrapterus pfluegeri Robins & de Sylva, 1963
synonymseniororiginal
Tetrapterus belone (non Rafinesque, 1810)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Tetrapturus belone (non Rafinesque, 1810)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Tetrapturus beloni (non Rafinesque, 1810)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Istiompax indica (Cuvier, 1832)
acceptedseniornew
Tetrapturus indicus Cuvier, 1832
synonymseniororiginal1
Istiomax indicus (Cuvier, 1832)
synonymseniornew
Istiompax indicus (Cuvier, 1832)
synonymseniornew
Makaira indica (Cuvier, 1832)
synonymseniornew
! Maikaira indica (Cuvier, 1832)
synonymseniornew
! Makaira indicus (Cuvier, 1832)
synonymseniornew
! Tetrapterus australis Macleay, 1854
synonymotheroriginal1
Makaira australis (MacLeay, 1854)
ambiguousothernew
Tetrapturus australis Macleay, 1854
synonymotheroriginal
! Histiophorus brevirostris Playfair, 1867
synonymjuniororiginal1
Istiompax brevirostris (Playfair, 1867)
synonymjuniornew
Makaira brevirostris (Playfair, 1867)
synonymjuniornew
Tetrapturus brevirostris (Playfair, 1867)
synonymjuniornew
Makaira marlina Jordan & Hill, 1926
synonymjuniororiginal2
Istiompax marlina (Jordan & Hill, 1926)
synonymjuniornew
Makaira ampla marlina Jordan & Hill, 1926
synonymjuniororiginal
Makaira marlina marlina Jordan & Hill, 1926
synonymjuniorchange in rank
Makaira nigricans marlina Jordan & Hill, 1926
synonymjuniorchange in rank
Marlina marlina (Jordan & Hill, 1926)
synonymjuniornew
! Makaira malina Jordan & Hill, 1926
synonymjuniororiginal
! Makaira marhina Jordan & Hill, 1926
synonymjuniororiginal
! Malina malina (Jordan & Hill, 1926)
synonymjuniornew
Istiompax australis Whitley, 1931
synonymjuniororiginal1
Makaira nigricans tahitiensis Nichols & La Monte, 1935
synonymjuniororiginal1
Makaira ampla tahitiensis Nichols & LaMonte, 1935
synonymjuniorchange in species
Makaira marlina tahitiensis Nichols & LaMonte, 1935
synonymjuniorchange in species
Makaira mazara tahitiensis Nichols & LaMonte, 1935
synonymjuniorchange in species
Istiompax dombraini Whitley, 1954
synonymjuniororiginal1
Makaira xantholineata Deraniyagala, 1956
synonymjuniororiginal1
! Makaira herscheri (non Gray, 1838)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887)
acceptedseniornew
Histiophorus audax Philippi, 1887
synonymseniororiginal1
Istiophorus audax (Philippi, 1887)
synonymseniornew
Makaira audax (Philippi, 1887)
synonymseniornew
Marlina audax (Philippi, 1887)
synonymseniornew
Tetrapturus audax (Philippi, 1887)
synonymseniornew
! Tetrapterus audax (Philippi, 1887)
synonymseniornew
Tetrapturus mitsukurii Jordan & Snyder, 1901
synonymjuniororiginal1
Kajikia mitsukurii (Jordan & Snyder, 1901)
synonymjuniornew
Makaira mitsukurii (Jordan & Snyder, 1901)
synonymjuniornew
Marlina mitsukurii (Jordan & Snyder, 1901)
synonymjuniornew
Makaira zelandica Jordan & Evermann, 1926
synonymjuniororiginal1
Makaira audax zelandica Jordan & Evermann, 1926
synonymjuniorchange in rank
Marlina zelandica (Jordan & Evermann, 1926)
synonymjuniornew
Makaira grammatica Jordan & Evermann, 1926
synonymjuniororiginal1
Makaira holei Jordan & Evermann, 1926
synonymjuniororiginal1
Tetrapturus ectenes Jordan & Evermann, 1926
synonymjuniororiginal1
Kajikia formosana Hirasaka & Nakamura, 1947
synonymjuniororiginal1
Makaira formosana (Hirasaka & Nakamura, 1947)
synonymjuniornew
Tetrapturus tenuirostratus Deraniyagala, 1951
synonymjuniororiginal1
Makaira tenuirostratus (Deraniyagala, 1951)
synonymjuniornew
! Tetrapturus acutirostratus Deraniyagala, 1951
synonymjuniororiginal
Marlina jauffreti Smith, 1956
synonymjuniororiginal1
Kajikia albida (Poey, 1860)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal1
Lamontella albida (Poey, 1860)
synonymseniornew
Makaira albida (Poey, 1860)
synonymseniornew
! Tetrapterus albidus Poey, 1860
synonymseniororiginal
Tetrapturus lessonae Canestrini, 1861
synonymjuniororiginal1
Makaira lessonae (Canestrini, 1861)
synonymjuniornew
Tetrapterus imperator (non Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Tetrapturus belone (non Rafinesque, 1810)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
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