Family Hexagrammidae - Greenlings
  Order
:
  Class
:
Actinopterygii
No. in FishBase
:
Genera : 5 | Species : 12 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
  Environment
:
Fresh : No | Brackish : No | Marine : Yes
  Division
:
Marine
  Aquarium
:
none
  First Fossil Record
:
     
  Remark
:
Distribution: Endemic to the North Pacific Ocean, primarily in subarctic and temperate waters, with one species (Hexagrammos stelleri) also occurring in the Arctic Ocean. No spines on the upper part of the head. One or two fleshy cirri above each eye in most species. Body moderately elongate and compressed. Single dorsal fin; usually notched. Spines on dorsal fin 16-28; soft rays 11-30. Anal fin long based, with up to 4 spines which in most species are rudimentary, and 12-28 soft rays. Pelvic fins with 1 spine and 5 soft rays. One pair of nostrils. Anterior nostrils well developed. Posterior nostrils pore-like or absent. Scales ctenoid, except cycloid in Ophiodon elongatus. One or five lateral lines. Teeth typically small, present on jaws and vomer; present also on palatines on some species. Gill membranes broadly joined and free of the isthmus with gill openings not extending far forward, or gill membranes joined to each other only anteriorly and free of the isthmus with gill openings extending far forward. Branchiostegal rays 6. Swim bladder absent. Vertebrae 36-62. Coloration is highly variable in some species and frequently differs by sex, size, geographic locality and local habitat. Reaches 1.52 m maximum length (in Ophiodon elongatus). Marine; intertidal to depth of 600 m or more, most species typically found shallower than 200 m on the continental shelf. Demersal except for Atka mackerels, Pleurogrammus, which as adults are pelagic. Diet includes various prey such as crabs, amphipods, polychaetes, juvenile fishes and fish eggs. Maximum length about 60 cm, most species reaching less. Zaniolepis was recognized in its own family in Eschmeyer (1998). Subfamilies: Hexagramminae (greenlings); Ophiodontinae (lingcods); Oxylebiinae (painted greenlings); Pleurogramminae (Atka mackerels); Zaniolepidinae (combfishes). Also Ref. 7463.
  Etymology
:
Greek, exa = six + Greek, gramma = sign, some graphic mark ( Ref. 45335).
  Reproductive guild
:
guarders
  Typical activity level
:
normal
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:
  Deep Fin Classification
:
Osteichthyes | Actinopterygii | Actinopteri | Neopterygii | Teleostei | Osteoglossocephalai | Clupeocephala | Euteleosteomorpha | Neoteleostei | Eurypterygia | Ctenosquamata | Acanthomorphata | Euacanthomorphacea | Percomorphaceae | Percomorpharia | Perciformes | Cottoidei | Hexagrammidae

Show species images | Show valid names | Nominal species list | Identification keys | CAS specimen photos | References

 
Ref.
[ e.g. 9948]
Glossary
[ e.g. cephalopods]


Species/Synonymy list for the family Hexagrammidae as currently in FishBase

Important recommendation:

The list below must not be used as an authority reference synonymy list like those found in scientific published revisions, which must be the source to be used and cited eventually when they exist.

Rather, it reflects the current content of FishBase, and the progress with respect to synchronization with the Catalog of Fishes. However, we think it can be useful for users to assess the quality of information in FishBase, to start new work on the family, or to cross-check with other lists.

But we appreciate to be cited in publications when this list has been of any working value. In particular, for published scientific, we suggest then to cite it in the Material and Method section as a useful tool to conduct the research, but again, not as a taxonomic or nomenclatural authority reference.

Unless it is explicitly precised, the list is not complete, please search all original names published for the family in the Catalog of Fishes (genera, species), including those with uncertain or unknown status, that are not included in FishBase when they are not attached to a valid species.

This list uses some data from Catalog of Fishes (not shown but used to sort names).

In the column CofF, the digit indicates the status of synchronization with CofF: 0: Not checked; 1: Same status;   2: Different status;   3: Other combination;   4: Synonym in CofF;   5: Species/Subspecies issue;   6: Synonym of another species in CofF;   7: Not in CofF;   8: Should not be in CofF. The CofF version currently used is the one published on 23-07-2014 (Ref. 97102).

The list ordered as follows:

Please send comments and corrections if you detect errors or missing names.

Show all | Show only accepted name | Show only accepted and original names
Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination CofF
Hexagramminae
Hexagrammos stelleri Tilesius, 1810
acceptedseniororiginal2
Labrax hexagrammus Pallas, 1814
synonymjuniororiginal2
Chiropsis nebulosus Girard, 1858
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Hexagrammos asper Tilesius, 1810.
synonymjuniororiginal2
Hexagrammoides nudigenis Gratzianov, 1907
synonymjuniororiginal2
acceptedseniornew
Labrax decagrammus Pallas, 1810
synonymseniororiginal2
Chiropsis decagrammus (Pallas, 1810)
synonymseniornew
Chirus denarius Richardson, 1844
synonymjuniororiginal2
Grystes lineatus Ayres, 1854
synonymjuniororiginal2
Chirus guttatus Girard, 1854
synonymjuniororiginal2
Chirus constellatus Girard, 1854
synonymjuniororiginal2
Chirus maculoseriatus Lockington, 1880
synonymjuniororiginal2
acceptedseniornew
Labrax lagocephalus Pallas, 1810
synonymseniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniornew
Lebius superciliosus (Pallas, 1810)
synonymjuniornew
Chirus pictus Girard, 1854
synonymjuniororiginal2
Chirus balias Cope, 1873
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
acceptedseniornew
Labrax octogrammus Pallas, 1814
synonymseniororiginal2
Chirus ordinatus Cope, 1873
synonymjuniororiginal2
Octogrammus pallasi Bleeker, 1874
synonymjuniororiginal2
Hexagrammos agrammus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843)
acceptedseniornew
Labrax agrammus Temminck & Schlegel, 1843
synonymseniororiginal2
Agrammus agrammus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843)
synonymseniornew
! Hexagrammous agrammus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843)
synonymseniornew
! Hexamogrammos agrammus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843)
synonymseniornew
Agrammus schlegelii G√ľnther, 1860
synonymjuniororiginal2
Hexagrammos otakii Jordan & Starks, 1895
acceptedseniororiginal2
Hexagrammos aburaco Jordan & Starks, 1903
synonymjuniororiginal2
Hexagrammos pingi Wu & Wang, 1931
synonymjuniororiginal2
Ophiodontinae
Ophiodon elongatus Girard, 1854
acceptedseniororiginal2
Oplopoma pantherina Girard, 1856
synonymjuniororiginal2
Oxylebiinae
Oxylebius pictus Gill, 1862
acceptedseniororiginal2
Pleurogramminae
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
Pleurogrammus azonus Jordan & Metz, 1913
acceptedseniororiginal2
Stellistius katsukii Jordan & Tanaka, 1927
synonymjuniororiginal2
Zaniolepidinae
acceptedseniororiginal2
Zaniolepis frenata Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889
acceptedseniororiginal
! Zaniolepis frenatus Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889
synonymseniororiginal1
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