Family Centracanthidae - Picarels
  Order
:
  Class
:
Actinopterygii
No. in FishBase
:
Genera : 2 | Species : 9 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
  Environment
:
Fresh : No | Brackish : No | Marine : Yes
  Division
:
Marine
  Aquarium
:
none
  First Fossil Record
:
lower   Tertiary   lower   Eocene
Ref..   Berg, L.S. 1958
  Remark
:
Distribution: eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean and off South Africa. Dorsal fin having 11-13 spines and 9-11 soft rays. Three spines in anal fin; soft rays 9-10. Very protractile upper jaw. Planktivorous. Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. 58418.
  Etymology
:
Greek, kentron = sharp point + Greek, akantha = thorn ( Ref. 45335).
  Reproductive guild
:
mixed
  Typical activity level
:
normal
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:
  Deep Fin Classification
:
Osteichthyes | Actinopterygii | Actinopteri | Neopterygii | Teleostei | Osteoglossocephalai | Clupeocephala | Euteleosteomorpha | Neoteleostei | Eurypterygia | Ctenosquamata | Acanthomorphata | Euacanthomorphacea | Percomorphaceae | Percomorpharia | Spariformes | Centracanthidae

Show species images | Show valid names | Nominal species list | Identification keys | CAS specimen photos | References

 
Ref.
[ e.g. 9948]
Glossary
[ e.g. cephalopods]


Species/Synonymy list for the family Centracanthidae as currently in FishBase

Important recommendation:

The list below must not be used as an authority reference synonymy list like those found in scientific published revisions, which must be the source to be used and cited eventually when they exist.

Rather, it reflects the current content of FishBase, and the progress with respect to synchronization with the Catalog of Fishes. However, we think it can be useful for users to assess the quality of information in FishBase, to start new work on the family, or to cross-check with other lists.

But we appreciate to be cited in publications when this list has been of any working value. In particular, for published scientific, we suggest then to cite it in the Material and Method section as a useful tool to conduct the research, but again, not as a taxonomic or nomenclatural authority reference.

Unless it is explicitly precised, the list is not complete, please search all original names published for the family in the Catalog of Fishes (genera, species), including those with uncertain or unknown status, that are not included in FishBase when they are not attached to a valid species.

This list uses some data from Catalog of Fishes (not shown but used to sort names).

In the column CofF, the digit indicates the status of synchronization with CofF: 0: Not checked; 1: Same status;   2: Different status;   3: Other combination;   4: Synonym in CofF;   5: Species/Subspecies issue;   6: Synonym of another species in CofF;   7: Not in CofF;   8: Should not be in CofF. The CofF version currently used is the one published on 15-11-2013 (Ref. 94485).

The list ordered as follows:

Please send comments and corrections if you detect errors or missing names.

Show all | Show only accepted name | Show only accepted and original names
Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination CofF
Centracanthus cirrus Rafinesque, 1810
acceptedseniororiginal1
! Centracantus cirrus Rafinesque, 1810
synonymseniororiginal
Smaris royerii Bowdich, 1825
synonymjuniororiginal2
! Smaris royeri Bowdich, 1825
synonymjuniororiginal
! Spicara royeri (Bowdich, 1825)
synonymjuniornew
Smaris insidiator Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal1
Spicara maena (Linnaeus, 1758)
acceptedseniornew
Sparus maena Linnaeus, 1758
synonymseniororiginal1
Maena maena (Linnaeus, 1758)
synonymseniornew
Merolepis maena (Linnaeus, 1758)
synonymseniornew
Smaris maena (Linnaeus, 1758)
synonymseniornew
Spicara maena maena (Linnaeus, 1758)
synonymseniornew
Sparus zebra Brünnich, 1768
synonymjuniororiginal1
Sparus osbeck Lacepède, 1802
synonymjuniororiginal1
Sparus tricuspidatus Spinola, 1807
synonymjuniororiginal1
Spicara flexuosa Rafinesque, 1810
synonymjuniororiginal2
Spicara maena flexuosa Rafinesque, 1810
synonymjuniorchange in rank
Maena jusculum Cuvier, 1829
synonymjuniororiginal1
Smaris cagarella Cuvier, 1829
synonymjuniororiginal1
Maena vomerina Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal1
Smaris chryselis Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal1
Maena chryselis (Valenciennes, 1830)
synonymjuniornew
Merolepis chryselis (Valenciennes, 1830)
synonymjuniornew
Spicara chryselis (Valenciennes, 1830)
synonymjuniornew
Smaris gagarella Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal1
Maena osbeckii Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal1
! Maena osbechii Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal
Maena vulgaris Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal1
Spicara smaris (Linnaeus, 1758)
acceptedseniornew
Sparus smaris Linnaeus, 1758
synonymseniororiginal1
Maena smaris (Linnaeus, 1758)
synonymseniornew
Smaris smaris (Linnaeus, 1758)
synonymseniornew
Sparus alcedo Risso, 1810
synonymjuniororiginal1
Smaris alcedo (Risso, 1810)
synonymjuniornew
Spicara alcedo (Risso, 1810)
synonymjuniornew
Smaris vulgaris Valenciennes, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal1
Smaris gracilis Bonaparte, 1836
synonymjuniororiginal1
Smaris maurii Bonaparte, 1836
synonymjuniororiginal1
Spicara martinicus (Valenciennes, 1830)
acceptedseniornew
Smaris martinicus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymseniororiginal1
Spicara melanurus (Valenciennes, 1830)
acceptedseniornew
Smaris melanurus Valenciennes, 1830
synonymseniororiginal1
Centracanthus melanurus (Valenciennes, 1830)
synonymseniornew
Pterosmaris melanurus (Valenciennes, 1830)
synonymseniornew
Spicara axillaris (Boulenger, 1900)
acceptedseniornew
Caesio axillaris Boulenger, 1900
synonymseniororiginal1
Pterosmaris axillaris (Boulenger, 1900)
synonymseniornew
Caesio algoae Smith, 1935
synonymjuniororiginal1
Spicara alta (Osório, 1917)
acceptedseniornew
Smaris altus Osório, 1917
synonymseniororiginal1
Smaris macrophthalmus Cadenat, 1937
synonymjuniororiginal1
Spicara australis (Regan, 1921)
acceptedseniornew
Smaris australis Regan, 1921
synonymseniororiginal1
Spicara nigricauda (Norman, 1931)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal1
Centracanthus melanurus (non Valenciennes, 1830)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Smaris melanurus (non Valenciennes, 1830)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
php script by celloran, 04/03/10, last modified by cmilitante, 29/11/12