Family Apteronotidae - Ghost knifefishes
  Order
:

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Apteronotidae
  Class
:
Actinopterygii
No. in FishBase
:
Genera : 15 | Species : 88 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
  Environment
:
Fresh : Yes | Brackish : No | Marine : No
  Division
:
Primary freshwater
  Aquarium
:
some
  First Fossil Record
:
     
  Remark
:
Species diversity and systematics of the Apteronotidae has been reviewed by Mago-Leccia (1994), Albert and Campos-da-Paz (1998), and Albert (2001). Apteronotid species are readily recognized as the only gymnotiform fishes with a caudal fin and a dorsal organ (a longitudinal strip of fleshy tissue firmly attached to posterodorsal midline). Among gymnotiforms, apteronotid species also possess the following unique combination of characters: small eye (its diameter less than distance between nares); infraorbital and supraorbital laterosensory lines connected anterior to eye; infraorbital bones ossified as slender tubes; anterior nares located outside gape; no urogenital papilla; 1-2 rows of conical teeth in both jaws; anal-fin origin at, or anterior to, isthmus; no urogenital papilla. Apteronotids also possess a high frequency tone-type electric organ discharge (more than 750 Hz at maturity). There are currently 72 names available in the literature for apteronotid genera and species. Of these, 13 generic and 52 species names are valid. There are in addition 12 manuscript names for species currently in preparation, bringing the known diversity of Apteronotidae to 64 species. Many more apteronotid species are anticipated, as the rate of description is accelerating. Apteronotids are relatively conservative in terms of overall external morphology. Like all gymnotiforms the shape is typically culteriform, with an elongate body and anal fin. Higher level apteronotid taxonomy emphasizes differences in snout length and shape, and shape and position of the mouth. Apteronotids exhibit substantial diversity in total adult body size, ranging from an undescribed Amazonian species of Adontosternarchus, and Megadontognathus kaitukaensis (each growing to about 160 mm) to Apteronotus (formerly Ubidia) magdalenese (1.3 M) (Campos-da-Paz, 1999). The Apteronotidae is confined to the Humid Neotropics, ranging the Rio de la Plata of Argentina (35° S) to the Rio Tuira of Panama (8°N). Apteronotids are known from the continental waters of all South American countries except Chile (Albert, 2001), and are most diverse - both taxonomically and ecologically - in the Amazon basin. The ecology and natural history of most apteronotid species is poorly understood. Apteronotus species are the most widely distributed, extending the full range of the family. Apteronotus species inhabit both floodplain and tierra firme (non-floodplain) streams and rivers. Like many apteronotids, Apteronotus are aggressive predators of small aquatic insect larvae and fishes. Apteronotids are most diverse in the Amazonian floodplain, where many species are specialized to inhabit deep portions of the river channel. Some main channel apteronotids are aggressive piscivores (e.g., Sternarchella), whereas other are planktivores (Adontosternarchus). Magosternarchus spp. predate the tails of other electric fishes. Other species (e.g., Sternarchorhynchus, Sternarchorhamphus) have tubular snouts and forage on the beds of aquatic insect larvae on the rivers bottoms. At least one species (Sternarchogiton nattereri) eats freshwater sponges which grow on submerged trees, stumps, and other woody debris. Orthosternarchus is perhaps the most specialized for life at the river bottom, in many ways resembling cave fishes; they are almost entirely blind, with minute, assyemtically arranged eyes; and they have almost no pigments or scales, appearing bright pink in life due to the underlying blood hemoglobin. An important aspect of apteronotid diversity is sexual dimorphism in snout size and shape. Reproductively mature males of Parapteronotus hasemani have highly elongate jaws, which are presumed to be involved in male-male competition. Mature males of Sternarchorhynchus roseni possess numeous teeth on their lower jaw. Mature male Sternarchogiton nattereri grow teeth externally over the snout, giving them an appearance to unusuall that for 40 years they have been regarded as representing an entirely different genus (Oedemognathus). Apteronotid systematics and taxonomy is rapidly changing as new species and previously undocumented phenotypes are discovered. The total expected number of species cannot currently be estimated with confidence. A large number of undescribed apteronotid species are known in museum collections and many more are likely to be captured from continued field studies, particularly in Western and Central Amazonia. There is little direct commercial exploitation of Apteronotid species. Many species are ecologically important in Amazonian floodplains, often constituting a significant fraction of the biomass (Crampton, 1996). Two species (Apteronotus albifrons and A. leptorhynchus) are common in the aquarium trade. Apteronotids are not an important food resource.
  Etymology
:
Greek, aptero = without fins + Greek, noton = back ( Ref. 45335).
  Reproductive guild
:
nonguarders
  Typical activity level
:
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:
  Deep Fin Classification
:
Osteichthyes | Actinopterygii | Actinopteri | Neopterygii | Teleostei | Osteoglossocephalai | Clupeocephala | Otomorpha | Ostariophysi | Otophysa | Characiphysae | Gymnotiformes | Sternopygoidei | Apteronotidae

Show species images | Show valid names | Nominal species list | Identification keys | CAS specimen photos | References

 
Ref.
[ e.g. 9948]
Glossary
[ e.g. cephalopods]


Species/Synonymy list for the family Apteronotidae as currently in FishBase

Important recommendation:

The list below must not be used as an authority reference synonymy list like those found in scientific published revisions, which must be the source to be used and cited eventually when they exist.

Rather, it reflects the current content of FishBase, and the progress with respect to synchronization with the Catalog of Fishes. However, we think it can be useful for users to assess the quality of information in FishBase, to start new work on the family, or to cross-check with other lists.

But we appreciate to be cited in publications when this list has been of any working value. In particular, for published scientific, we suggest then to cite it in the Material and Method section as a useful tool to conduct the research, but again, not as a taxonomic or nomenclatural authority reference.

Unless it is explicitly precised, the list is not complete, please search all original names published for the family in the Catalog of Fishes (genera, species), including those with uncertain or unknown status, that are not included in FishBase when they are not attached to a valid species.

This list uses some data from Catalog of Fishes (not shown but used to sort names).

In the column CofF, the digit indicates the status of synchronization with CofF: 0: Not checked; 1: Same status;   2: Different status;   3: Other combination;   4: Synonym in CofF;   5: Species/Subspecies issue;   6: Synonym of another species in CofF;   7: Not in CofF;   8: Should not be in CofF. The CofF version currently used is the one published on 15-11-2013 (Ref. 94485).

The list ordered as follows:

Please send comments and corrections if you detect errors or missing names.

Show all | Show only accepted name | Show only accepted and original names
Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination CofF
Apteronotus albifrons (Linnaeus, 1766)
acceptedseniornew
Gymnotus albifrons Linnaeus, 1766
synonymseniororiginal1
Sternarchus albifrons (Linnaeus, 1766)
synonymseniornew
Apteronotus passan Lacepède, 1800
synonymjuniororiginal1
Sternarchus lacepedii Castelnau, 1855
synonymjuniororiginal1
Sternarchus maximilliani Castelnau, 1855
synonymjuniororiginal1
Apteronotus brasiliensis (Reinhardt, 1852)
acceptedseniornew
Sternarchus brasiliensis Reinhardt, 1852
synonymseniororiginal1
Apteronotus bonapartii (Castelnau, 1855)
acceptedseniornew
Sternarchus bonapartii Castelnau, 1855
synonymseniororiginal1
Apteronotus macrolepis (Steindachner, 1881)
acceptedseniornew
Sternarchus macrolepis Steindachner, 1881
synonymseniororiginal1
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal1
Apteronotus rostratus (Meek & Hildebrand, 1913)
acceptedseniornew
! Stenarchus rostratus Meek & Hildebrand, 1913
synonymseniororiginal1
Sternarchus rostratus Meek & Hildebrand, 1913
synonymseniororiginal
Apteronotus mariae (Eigenmann & Fisher, 1914)
acceptedseniornew
Sternarchus mariae Eigenmann & Fisher, 1914
synonymseniororiginal1
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal1
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal1
Apteronotus jurubidae (Fowler, 1944)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal1
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal1
Apteronotus cuchillejo (Schultz, 1949)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal1
Apteronotus cuchillo Schultz, 1949
acceptedseniororiginal1
Apteronotus ellisi (Alonso de Arámburu, 1957)
acceptedseniornew
Porotergus ellisi Alonso de Arámburu, 1957
synonymseniororiginal1
Apteronotus apurensis Fernández-Yépez, 1968
acceptedseniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal1
Apteronotus eschmeyeri de Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo, Severi & Mendes, 2004
acceptedseniororiginal1
Apteronotus rostratus (non Meek & Hildebrand, 1913)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Stenarchus rostratus (non Meek & Hildebrand, 1913)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Apteronotus milesi de Santana & Maldonado-Ocampo, 2005
acceptedseniororiginal1
Apteronotus camposdapazi de Santana & Lehmann A., 2006
acceptedseniororiginal1
Apteronotus magoi de Santana, Castillo & Taphorn, 2006
acceptedseniororiginal1
Apteronotus galvisi de Santana, Maldonado-Ocampo & Crampton, 2007
acceptedseniororiginal1
Apteronotus acidops Triques, 2011
acceptedseniororiginal1
Apteronotus lindalvae de Santana & Cox Fernandes, 2012
acceptedseniororiginal2
Sternarchorhynchus oxyrhynchus (Müller & Troschel, 1849)
acceptedseniornew
Sternarchus oxyrhynchus Müller & Troschel, 1849
synonymseniororiginal1
synonymjuniororiginal1
! Sternarchorhynchus muelleri Castelnau, 1855
synonymjuniororiginal
Sternarchorhynchus mormyrus (Steindachner, 1868)
acceptedseniornew
Sternarchus mormyrus Steindachner, 1868
synonymseniororiginal1
acceptedseniornew
Sternarchus curvirostris Boulenger, 1887
synonymseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus roseni Mago-Leccia, 1994
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus britskii Campos-da-Paz, 2000
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus curvirostris (non Boulenger, 1887)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sternarchorhynchus mesensis Campos-da-Paz, 2000
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus caboclo de Santana & Nogueira, 2006
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus oxyrhynchus (non Müller & Troschel, 1849)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sternarchorhynchus curumim de Santana & Crampton, 2006
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus gnomus de Santana & Taphorn, 2006
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus severii de Santana & Nogueira, 2006
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus axelrodi de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus mormyrus (non Steindachner, 1868)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sternarchorhynchus chaoi de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus cramptoni de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus roseni (non Mago-Leccia, 1994)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sternarchorhynchus freemani de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus oxyrhynchus (non Müller & Troschel, 1849)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sternarchorhynchus galibi de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus goeldii de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus hagedornae de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus higuchii de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus inpai de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus jaimei de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus kokraimoro de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus mareikeae de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus oxyrhynchus (non Müller & Troschel, 1849)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sternarchorhynchus marreroi de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus mendesi de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus montanus de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus retzeri de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus roseni (non Mago-Leccia, 1994)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sternarchorhynchus schwassmanni de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus starksi de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus mormyrus (non Steindachner, 1868)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sternarchorhynchus curvirostris (non Boulenger, 1887)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sternarchorhynchus stewarti de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus curvirostris (non Boulenger, 1887)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sternarchorhynchus taphorni de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus villasboasi de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhynchus yepezi de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchella schotti (Steindachner, 1868)
acceptedseniornew
Sternarchus schotti Steindachner, 1868
synonymseniororiginal1
Sternarchella sima Starks, 1913
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchella orinoco Mago-Leccia, 1994
synonymjuniororiginal1
Sternarchella terminalis (Eigenmann & Allen, 1942)
acceptedseniornew
Porotergus terminalis Eigenmann & Allen, 1942
synonymseniororiginal1
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchella orthos Mago-Leccia, 1994
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchella calhamazon Lundberg, Coz Fernandes & Campos da Paz, 2013
acceptedseniororiginal2
Sternarchogiton nattereri (Steindachner, 1868)
acceptedseniornew
Sternarchus nattereri Steindachner, 1868
synonymseniororiginal1
synonymjuniororiginal1
Sternarchogiton porcinum Eigenmann & Allen, 1942
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchogiton labiatus de Santana & Crampton, 2007
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchogiton preto de Santana & Crampton, 2007
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchogiton zuanoni de Santana & Vari, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sternarchorhamphus muelleri (Steindachner, 1881)
acceptedseniornew
Sternarchus muelleri Steindachner, 1881
synonymseniororiginal1
acceptedseniornew
Sternarchus sachsi Peters, 1877
synonymseniororiginal1
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal1
Adontosternarchus clarkae Mago-Leccia, Lundberg & Baskin, 1985
acceptedseniororiginal1
Adontosternarchus devenanzii Mago-Leccia, Lundberg & Baskin, 1985
acceptedseniororiginal1
Adontosternarchus nebulosus Lundberg & Cox Fernandes, 2007
acceptedseniororiginal1
Adontosternarchus duartei de Santana & Vari, 2012
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal1
Porotergus gimbeli Ellis, 1912
acceptedseniororiginal1
Porotergus duende de Santana & Crampton, 2010
acceptedseniororiginal1
Porotergus gymnotus (non Ellis, 1912)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Orthosternarchus tamandua (Boulenger, 1898)
acceptedseniornew
Sternarchus tamandua Boulenger, 1898
synonymseniororiginal1
Megadontognathus cuyuniense Mago-Leccia, 1994
acceptedseniororiginal1
Megadontognathus kaitukaensis Campos-da-paz, 1999
acceptedseniororiginal1
acceptedseniornew
Sternarchus macrostoma Günther, 1870
synonymseniororiginal1
Platyurosternarchus crypticus de Santana & Vari, 2009
acceptedseniororiginal1
Platyurosternarchus macrostomus (non Günther, 1870)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sternarchorhamphus macrostoma (non Günther, 1870)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Magosternarchus raptor Lundberg, Cox Fernandes & Albert, 1996
acceptedseniororiginal1
Magosternarchus duccis Lundberg, Cox Fernandes & Albert, 1996
acceptedseniororiginal1
Tembeassu marauna Triques, 1998
acceptedseniororiginal1
Apteronotus marauna (Triques, 1998)
synonymseniornew
Compsaraia compsus (Mago-Leccia, 1994)
acceptedseniornew
Porotergus compsus Mago-Leccia, 1994
synonymseniororiginal1
! Compsaraia compsa (Mago-Leccia, 1994)
synonymseniornew
Compsaraia samueli Albert & Crampton, 2009
acceptedseniororiginal1
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal1
Apteronotus hasemani (Ellis, 1913)
synonymseniornew
Apteronotus anas Eigenmann & Allen, 1942
synonymjuniororiginal2
Pariosternarchus amazonensis Albert & Crampton, 2006
acceptedseniororiginal1
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